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A121460 Triangle read by rows: T(n,k) is the number of nondecreasing Dyck paths of semilength n, having k returns to the x-axis (1<=k<=n). 1
1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 5, 4, 3, 1, 13, 9, 7, 4, 1, 34, 22, 16, 11, 5, 1, 89, 56, 38, 27, 16, 6, 1, 233, 145, 94, 65, 43, 22, 7, 1, 610, 378, 239, 159, 108, 65, 29, 8, 1, 1597, 988, 617, 398, 267, 173, 94, 37, 9, 1, 4181, 2585, 1605, 1015, 665, 440, 267, 131, 46, 10, 1, 10946, 6766 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,4

COMMENTS

Also the number of directed column-convex polyominoes of area n, having k cells in the bottom row. Row sums are the odd-subscripted Fibonacci numbers (A001519). T(n,1)=fibonacci(2n-3) for n>=2 (A001519). T(n,2)=1+fibonacci(2n-4)=A055588(n-2). T(n,3)=n-3+fibonacci(2n-5). Sum(k*T(n,k),k=1..n)=A061667(n-1).

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..68.

E. Barcucci, A. Del Lungo, S. Fezzi and R. Pinzani, Nondecreasing Dyck paths and q-Fibonacci numbers, Discrete Math., 170, 1997, 211-217.

E. Barcucci, R. Pinzani and R. Sprugnoli, Directed column-convex polyominoes by recurrence relations, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, No. 668, Springer, Berlin (1993), pp. 282-298.

E. Deutsch and H. Prodinger, A bijection between directed column-convex polyominoes and ordered trees of height at most three, Theoretical Comp. Science, 307, 2003, 319-325.

FORMULA

T(n,k) = binomial(n-2,k-2)+Sum(fibonacci(2j-1)*binomial(n-2-j,k-2), j=1..n-k).

G.f.: G(t,z)=tz(1-2z)(1-z)/[(1-3z+z^2)(1-z-tz)].

EXAMPLE

T(4,2)=4 because we have UUDDUUDD, UDUUUDDD, UUUDDDUD and UDUUDUDD, where U=(1,1) and D=(1,-1) (the Dyck path UUDUDDUD does not qualify: it does have 2 returns to the x-axis but it is not nondecreasing since its valleys are at altitudes 1 and 0).

Triangle starts:

1;

1,1;

2,2,1;

5,4,3,1;

13,9,7,4,1;

34,22,16,11,5,1;

MAPLE

with(combinat): T:=(n, k)->binomial(n-2, k-2)+add(fibonacci(2*j-1)*binomial(n-2-j, k-2), j=1..n-k): for n from 1 to 12 do seq(T(n, k), k=1..n) od; # yields sequence in triangular form

CROSSREFS

Cf. A001519, A055588, A061667.

Sequence in context: A127742 A110438 A184051 * A105292 A273342 A276067

Adjacent sequences:  A121457 A121458 A121459 * A121461 A121462 A121463

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Emeric Deutsch, Jul 31 2006

STATUS

approved

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Last modified March 19 15:02 EDT 2019. Contains 321330 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)