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A098149 a(0)=-1, a(1)=-1, a(n)=-3*a(n-1)-a(n-2) for n>1. 9
-1, -1, 4, -11, 29, -76, 199, -521, 1364, -3571, 9349, -24476, 64079, -167761, 439204, -1149851, 3010349, -7881196, 20633239, -54018521, 141422324, -370248451, 969323029, -2537720636, 6643838879, -17393796001, 45537549124, -119218851371 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

Sequence relates bisections of Lucas and Fibonacci numbers.

2*a(n) + A098150(n) = 8*(-1)^(n+1)*A001519(n) - (-1)^(n+1)*A005248(n+1). Apparently, if (z(n)) is any sequence of integers (not all zero) satisfying the formula z(n) = 2(z(n-2) - z(n-1)) + z(n-3) then |z(n+1)/z(n)| -> golden ratio phi + 1 = (3+sqrt(5))/2.

Pisano period lengths: 1, 3, 4, 6, 1, 12, 8, 6, 12, 3, 10, 12, 7, 24, 4, 12, 9, 12, 18, 6, ... . - R. J. Mathar, Aug 10 2012

From Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 12 2020: (Start)

[X(n) = (-1)^n*(S(n, 3) + S(n-1, 3)), Y(n) = X(n-1)] gives all integer solutions (modulo sign flip between X and Y) of X^2 + Y^2 + 3*X*Y = +5, for n = -oo..+oo, with Chebyshev S polynomials (A049310), with S(-1, x) = 0, S(-|n|, x) = - S(|n|-2, x), for |n| >= 2, and S(n,-x) = (-1)^n*S(n, x). The present sequence is a(n) = -X(n-1), for n >= 0. See the formula section.

This binary indefinite quadratic form of discriminant 5, representing 5, has only this family of proper solutions (modulo sign flip), and no improper ones.

This comment is inspired by a paper by Robert K. Moniot (private communication) See his Oct 04 2020 comment in A027941 related to the case of x^2 + y^2 - 3*x*y = -1 (special Markov solutions). (End)

LINKS

Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000

Seong Ju Kim, R. Stees, L. Taalman, Sequences of Spiral Knot Determinants, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 19 (2016), #16.1.4.

Tanya Khovanova, Recursive Sequences

Ryan Stees, Sequences of Spiral Knot Determinants, Senior Honors Projects, Paper 84, James Madison Univ., May 2016.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (-3,-1).

Index entries for sequences related to Chebyshev polynomials.

FORMULA

G.f.: -(1+4*x)/(1+3*x+x^2). - Philippe Deléham, Nov 19 2006

a(n) = (-1)^n*A002878(n-1). - R. J. Mathar, Jan 30 2011

-a(n+1) = Sum_{k, 0<=k<=n}(-5)^k*Binomial(n+k, n-k) = Sum_{k, 0<=k<=n}(-5)^k*A085478(n, k). - Philippe Deléham, Nov 28 2006

a(n) = -(1/2)*[(-3/2)-(1/2)*sqrt(5)]^n+(1/2)*[(-3/2)-(1/2)*sqrt(5)]^n*sqrt(5)-(1/2)*[(-3/2)+(1/2)*sqrt(5)]^n*sqrt(5)-(1/2)*[(-3/2)+(1/2)*sqrt(5)]^n, with n>=0. - Paolo P. Lava, Nov 19 2008

a(n) = (-1)^n*(S(n-1, 3) + S(n-2, 3)) = (-1)^n*S(2*(n-1), sqrt(5)), for n >= 0, with Chebyshev S polynomials (A049310), with S(-1, x) = 0 and S(-2, x) = -1. S(n, 3) = A001906(n+1) = F(2*(n+1)), with F = A000045. - Wolfdieter Lang, Oct 12 2020

MATHEMATICA

a[0] = a[1] = -1; a[n_] := a[n] = -3a[n - 2] - a[n - 1]; Table[ a[n], {n, 0, 27}] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Sep 01 2004 *)

LinearRecurrence[{-3, -1}, {-1, -1}, 30] (* Harvey P. Dale, Apr 19 2014 *)

CoefficientList[Series[-(1 + 4 x)/(1 + 3 x + x^2), {x, 0, 40}], x] (* Vincenzo Librandi, Apr 19 2014 *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A098150, A001519, A005248, A000045, A001906, A049310, A027941.

Sequence in context: A027968 A027970 A027972 * A002878 A341341 A124861

Adjacent sequences: A098146 A098147 A098148 * A098150 A098151 A098152

KEYWORD

easy,sign

AUTHOR

Creighton Dement, Aug 29 2004

EXTENSIONS

Simpler definition from Philippe Deléham, Nov 19 2006

STATUS

approved

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Last modified December 1 00:42 EST 2022. Contains 358453 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)