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A001008 Numerators of harmonic numbers H(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} 1/i.
(Formerly M2885 N1157)
273

%I M2885 N1157

%S 1,3,11,25,137,49,363,761,7129,7381,83711,86021,1145993,1171733,

%T 1195757,2436559,42142223,14274301,275295799,55835135,18858053,

%U 19093197,444316699,1347822955,34052522467,34395742267,312536252003,315404588903,9227046511387

%N Numerators of harmonic numbers H(n) = Sum_{i=1..n} 1/i.

%C H(n) is the maximal distance that a stack of n cards can project beyond the edge of a table without toppling.

%C By Wolstenholme's theorem, p^2 divides a(p-1) for all primes p > 3.

%C From _Alexander Adamchuk_, Dec 11 2006: (Start)

%C p divides a(p^2-1) for all primes p > 3.

%C p divides a((p-1)/2) for primes p in A001220.

%C p divides a((p+1)/2) or a((p-3)/2) for primes p in A125854.

%C a(n) is prime for n in A056903. Corresponding primes are given by A067657. (End)

%C a(n+1)= numerator of polynomial A[1,n](1) where polynomial A[genus 1, level n](m) is defined as Sum_{d=1..n-1} m^(n-d)/d. (See Mathematica procedure generating A[1,n](m) below.) - _Artur Jasinski_, Oct 16 2008

%C Better solutions to the card stacking problem have been found by M. Paterson and U. Zwick (see link). - _Hugo Pfoertner_, Jan 01 2012

%C a(n) = A213999(n,n-1). - _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Jul 03 2012

%C From _Paul Curtz_, Nov 30 2013: (Start)

%C b(n)=0 followed by H(n) (= 1, 3/2, ...) = 0, 1, 3/2, 11/6, ... .

%C Akiyama-Tanigawa algorithm applied to b(n):

%C 0, 1, 3/2, 11/6, 25/12, 137/60, ...

%C -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, ... = -A000012.

%C 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ... = A000004.

%C The first column is -A063524.

%C c(n)=0 followed by b(n). The difference table of c(n) is:

%C 0, 0, 1, 3/2, 11/6, 25/12, ...

%C 0, 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, ... = A211666?/A028310,

%C 1, -1/2, -1/6, -1/12, ...

%C -3/2, 1/3, 1/12, ...

%C 11/6, -1/4, ...

%C -25/12, ... .

%C c(n) is an autosequence of second kind: its inverse binomial transform is the signed sequence with the main diagonal double of the first upper diagonal. (End)

%C a(n) coincides with A175441(n) if and only if n is not from the sequence A256102. The quotient a(n) / A175441(n) for n in A256102 is given as corresponding entry of A256103. - _Wolfdieter Lang_, Apr 23 2015

%C For a very short proof that the Harmonic series diverges, see the Goldmakher link. - _N. J. A. Sloane_, Nov 09 2015

%D R. L. Graham, D. E. Knuth and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990, p. 259.

%D G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. 3rd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 1954, page 347.

%D D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, p. 615.

%D N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).

%D N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

%H Kenny Lau, <a href="/A001008/b001008.txt">Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..2295</a> (first 200 terms provided by T. D. Noe)

%H D. H. Bailey, J. M. Borwein, R. Girgensohn, <a href="http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.em/1062621000">Experimental evaluation of Euler sums</a>, Exper. Math. 3 (1) (1994) 17, evaluate constants sum_{k>=1} H_k^m/(k+1)^n.

%H Hongwei Chen, <a href="https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL9/Chen/chen78.html">Evaluations of Some Variant Euler Sums</a>, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 9 (2006), Article 06.2.3.

%H R. M. Dickau, <a href="http://mathforum.org/advanced/robertd/harmonic.html">Harmonic numbers and the book-stacking problem</a>

%H Leo Goldmakher, <a href="http://web.williams.edu/Mathematics/lg5/harmonic.pdf">A short(er) proof of the divergence of the harmonic series</a>

%H A. Iványi, <a href="http://www.emis.de/journals/AUSM/C5-1/math51-5.pdf">Leader election in synchronous networks</a>, Acta Univ. Sapientiae, Mathematica, 5, 2 (2013) 54-82.

%H Fredrik Johansson, <a href="http://fredrik-j.blogspot.de/2009/02/how-not-to-compute-harmonic-numbers.html">How (not) to compute harmonic numbers.</a> Feb 21 2009.

%H M. Kaneko, <a href="https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL3/KANEKO/AT-kaneko.html">The Akiyama-Tanigawa algorithm for Bernoulli numbers</a>, J. Integer Sequences, 3 (2000), #00.2.9.

%H R. Mestrovic, <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.3057">Wolstenholme's theorem: Its Generalizations and Extensions in the last hundred and fifty years (1862-2011)</a>, arXiv preprint arXiv:1111.3057 [math.NT], 2011.

%H Jerry Metzger and Thomas Richards, <a href="https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL18/Metzger/metz1.html">A Prisoner Problem Variation</a>, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 18 (2015), Article 15.2.7.

%H Hisanori Mishima, <a href="http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~KC2H-MSM/mathland/matha1/matha126.htm">Factorizations of Wolstenholme numbers, n=1..100</a>,

%H <a href="http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~KC2H-MSM/mathland/matha1/matha127.htm">n=101..200</a>, <a href="http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~KC2H-MSM/mathland/matha1/matha128.htm">n=201..300</a>.

%H M. Paterson et al., <a href="http://www.math.dartmouth.edu/~pw/papers/maxover.pdf">Maximum Overhang</a>

%H M. D. Schmidt, <a href="https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL13/Schmidt/multifact.html">Generalized j-Factorial Functions, Polynomials, and Applications </a>, J. Int. Seq. 13 (2010), 10.6.7, Section 4.3

%H Peter Shiu, <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.02863">The denominators of harmonic numbers</a>, arXiv:1607.02863 [math.NT], 2016.

%H N. J. A. Sloane, <a href="/A001008/a001008.gif">Illustration of initial terms</a>

%H J. Sondow and E. W. Weisstein, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HarmonicNumber.html">MathWorld: Harmonic Number</a>

%H Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BookStackingProblem.html">Book Stacking Problem</a>, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/WolstenholmesTheorem.html">Wolstenholme's Theorem</a>, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HarmonicMean.html">Harmonic Mean</a>, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DigammaFunction.html">Digamma Function</a>

%F H(n) ~ log n + gamma + O(1/n) [see for example Hardy and Wright, Th. 422.]

%F log n + gamma - 1/n < H(n) < log n + gamma + 1/n [follows easily from Hardy and Wright, Th. 422]. - _David Applegate_ and _N. J. A. Sloane_, Oct 14 2008

%F G.f. for H(n): log(1-x)/(x-1). - _Benoit Cloitre_, Jun 15 2003

%F H(n) = sqrt(Sum_{i=1..n}{j=1..n} 1/(i*j)). - _Alexander Adamchuk_, Oct 24 2004

%F a(n) = Numerator[EulerGamma/n + PolyGamma[0, 1 + n]/n]. - _Artur Jasinski_, Nov 02 2008

%F H(n) = 3/2 + 2*Sum_{k=0..n-3} binomial(k+2,2)/((n-2-k)*(n-1)*n), n > 1. - _Gary Detlefs_, Aug 02 2011

%F H(n) = (-1)^(n-1)*(n+1)*n*Sum_{k=0..n-1} k!*Stirling2(n-1,k) * Stirling1(n+k+1,n+1)/(n+k+1)!. - _Vladimir Kruchinin_, Feb 05 2013

%F H(n) = n*Sum_{k=0..n-1} (-1)^k*binomial(n-1,k)/(k+1)^2. (Wenchang Chu). - _Gary Detlefs_, Apr 13 2013

%F H(n) = (1/2)*Sum_{k=1..n} (-1)^(k-1)*binomial(n,k)*binomial(n+k,k)/k. (H. W. Gould) - _Gary Detlefs_, Apr 13 2013

%F E.g.f. for H(n) = a(n)/A002805(n): (gamma + log(x) - Ei(-x)) * exp(x), where gamma is the Euler-Mascheroni constant, and Ei(x) is the exponential integral. - _Vladimir Reshetnikov_, Apr 24 2013

%F H(n) = residue((psi(-s)+gamma)^2/2, {s, n}) where psi is the digamma function and gamma the Euler-Mascheroni constant. - _Jean-François Alcover_, Feb 19 2014

%F H(n) = Sum_{m>=1} n/(m^2 + n*m) = gamma + digamma(1+n), numerators and denominators. See Mathworld link on Digamma. - _Richard R. Forberg_, Jan 18 2015

%F H(n) = (1/2) Sum_{j>=1} Sum_{k=1..n} ((1 - 2*k + 2*n)/((-1 + k + j*n) (k + j*n))) + log(n) + 1/(2*n). - _Dimitri Papadopoulos_, Jan 13 2016

%F H(n) = (n!)^2*Sum_{k=1..n}(1/(k*(n-k)!*(n+k)!)). - _Vladimir Kruchinin_, Mar 31 2016

%F a(n) = stirling1(n+1,2) / gcd(stirling1(n+1,2),n!) = A000254(n) / gcd(A000254(n),n!). - _Max Alekseyev_, Mar 01 2018

%e H(n) = [ 1, 3/2, 11/6, 25/12, 137/60, 49/20, 363/140, 761/280, 7129/2520, ... ].

%e Coincidences with A175441: the first 19 entries coincide because 20 is the first entry of A256102. Indeed, a(20)/A175441(20) = 55835135 / 11167027 = 5 = A256103(1). - _Wolfdieter Lang_, Apr 23 2015

%p A001008 := proc(n)

%p add(1/k,k=1..n) ;

%p numer(%) ;

%p end proc:

%p seq( A001008(n),n=1..40) ; # _Zerinvary Lajos_, Mar 28 2007; _R. J. Mathar_, Dec 02 2016

%t Table[Numerator[HarmonicNumber[n]], {n, 30}]

%t (* Procedure generating A[1,n](m) (see Comments section) *) m =.; aa = {}; Do[k = 0; Do[k = k + m^(r - d)/d, {d, 1, r - 1}]; AppendTo[aa, k], {r, 1, 20}]; aa (* _Artur Jasinski_, Oct 16 2008 *)

%o (PARI) A001008(n) = numerator(sum(i=1,n,1/i)) \\ _Michael B. Porter_, Dec 08 2009

%o (Haskell)

%o import Data.Ratio ((%), numerator)

%o a001008 = numerator . sum . map (1 %) . enumFromTo 1

%o a001008_list = map numerator $ scanl1 (+) $ map (1 %) [1..]

%o -- _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Jul 03 2012

%o (Sage)

%o def harmonic(a, b): # See the F. Johansson link.

%o if b - a == 1 : return 1, a

%o m = (a+b)//2

%o p, q = harmonic(a,m)

%o r, s = harmonic(m,b)

%o return p*s+q*r, q*s

%o def A001008(n) : H = harmonic(1,n+1); return numerator(H[0]/H[1])

%o [A001008(n) for n in (1..29)] # _Peter Luschny_, Sep 01 2012

%o (MAGMA) [Numerator(HarmonicNumber(n)): n in [1..30]]; // _Bruno Berselli_, Feb 17 2016

%o (Python)

%o from fractions import Fraction

%o print [Fraction(str(sum([1/i for i in xrange(1,n + 1)]))).numerator for n in xrange(1, 31)] # _Indranil Ghosh_, Mar 23 2017

%Y Cf. A002805 (denominators), A007406, A007408, A007410, A075135, A001220, A125854, A121999, A014566, A056903, A067657, A177427, A177690.

%Y Cf. A145609-A145640. - _Artur Jasinski_, Oct 16 2008

%Y Cf. A003506. - _Paul Curtz_, Nov 30 2013

%Y The following fractions are all related to each other: Sum 1/n: A001008/A002805, Sum 1/prime(n): A024451/A002110 and A106830/A034386, Sum 1/nonprime(n): A282511/A282512, Sum 1/composite(n): A250133/A296358.

%K nonn,frac,nice,easy

%O 1,2

%A _N. J. A. Sloane_

%E Edited by _Max Alekseyev_, Oct 21 2011

%E Changed title, deleting the incorrect name 'Wolstenholme numbers' which conflicted with the definition of the latter in both Weisstein's World of Mathematics and in Wikipedia, as well as with OEIS A007406. - _Stanislav Sykora_, Mar 25 2016

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Last modified October 19 03:36 EDT 2018. Contains 316330 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)