

A217584


Numbers k such that d(k^2)/d(k) is an integer, where d(k) is the number of divisors of k.


5



1, 144, 324, 400, 784, 1936, 2025, 2500, 2704, 3600, 3969, 4624, 5625, 5776, 7056, 8100, 8464, 9604, 9801, 13456, 13689, 15376, 15876, 17424, 19600, 21609, 21904, 22500, 23409, 24336, 26896, 29241, 29584, 30625, 35344, 39204, 41616, 42849, 44944, 48400, 51984
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OFFSET

1,2


COMMENTS

The ratio d(k^2)/d(k) is: 1 for the number 1, 3 for numbers of the form p^4*q^2, 5 for numbers of the form p^4*q^2*r^2 (p, q, r being different primes).
Primes can't be in the sequence. A prime p has two divisors, while p^2 has three divisors: 1, p, p^2.  Alonso del Arte, Oct 07 2012
All the terms are squares since d(m) is odd if and only if m is a square, so d(k^2) is odd and since d(k)d(k^2), d(k) is also odd, so k is a square. The ratio d(k^2)/d(k) can take values other than 1, 3, and 5: 1587600 is the least term with a ratio 9, and 192099600 is the least term with a ratio 15.  Amiram Eldar, May 23 2020
From Bernard Schott, May 29 2020 and Nov 22 2020: (Start)
This sequence comes from the 3rd problem, proposed by Belarus, during the 39th International Mathematical Olympiad in 1998 at Taipei (Taiwan) [see the link IMO].
If the prime signature of k is (u_1, u_2, ... , u_q) then d(k^2)/d(k) = Product_{i=1..q} (2*u_i+1)/(u_i+1). Two results:
1) If k is a term such that d(k^2)/d(k) = m, then all numbers that have the same prime signature of k are also terms and give the same ratio (see examples below).
2) The set of the integer values of the ratio d(k^2)/d(k) is exactly the set of all positive odd integers (see Marcin E. Kuczma reference).
Some examples:
For numbers with prime signature = (4, 2) (A189988), the ratio is 3 and the smallest such integer is 144 = 2^4 * 3^2.
For numbers with prime signature = (4, 2, 2) (A179746), the ratio is 5 and the smallest such integer is 3600 = 2^4 * 3^2 * 5^2.
For numbers with prime signature = (4, 4, 2, 2) the ratio is 9 and the smallest such integer is 1587600 = 2^4 * 3^4 * 5^2 * 7^2.
For numbers with prime signature = (8, 4, 4, 2, 2) the ratio is 17 and the smallest such integer is 76839840000 = 2^8 * 3^4 * 5^4 * 7^2 * 11^2 (found by David A. Corneth with other prime signatures). (End)


REFERENCES

Marcin E. Kuczma, International Mathematical Olympiads, 19861999, The Mathematical Association of America, 2003, pages 134135.


LINKS

Amiram Eldar, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000 (terms 1..100 from Paolo P. Lava)
The IMO Compendium, Problem 3, 39th IMO 1998.
Kin Y. Li, Problem 3, Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 4, No. 3, Jan.Mar. 1999.
Index to sequences related to Olympiads.


EXAMPLE

d(1^2)/d(1) = d(1)/d(1) = 1 an integer, so 1 belongs to the sequence.
144^2 has 45 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, ..., 20736, while 144 has 15 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, ..., 144; 45/15 = 3 and so 144 is in the sequence.


MATHEMATICA

Select[Range[1000], IntegerQ[DivisorSigma[0, #^2]/DivisorSigma[0, #]] &] (* Alonso del Arte, Oct 07 2012 *)
Select[Range[228]^2, Divisible[DivisorSigma[0, #^2], DivisorSigma[0, #]] &] (* Amiram Eldar, May 23 2020 *)


PROG

(PARI) dn2dn(n)= {for (i=1, n, if (denominator(numdiv(i^2)/numdiv(i))==1, print1(i, ", "); ); ); }


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000005, A003593, A025487, A048691.
Subsequences: A189988 (d(k^2)/d(k) = 3), A179746 (d(k^2)/d(k) = 5).
Cf. A339055 (values taken by d(a(n)^2)/d(a(n))), A339056 (smallest k such that d(k^2)/d(k) = nth odd).
Sequence in context: A320457 A154051 A335543 * A030633 A189988 A232892
Adjacent sequences: A217581 A217582 A217583 * A217585 A217586 A217587


KEYWORD

nonn


AUTHOR

Michel Marcus, Oct 07 2012


STATUS

approved



