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A131209 Maximal distance between two signed permutations of n elements. 1


%S 0,1,3,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,

%T 27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,

%U 50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69

%N Maximal distance between two signed permutations of n elements.

%C See also the comments in A058986 for background information.

%C From Glenn Tesler: (Start)

%C Let d_max = a(n) be the maximal distance.

%C Then d_max = n for n=0,1,3; d_max = n+1 except for n=0,1,3; however, there are many permutations achieving the max, not just the 2 Gollan permutations as in the unsigned case.

%C The formula for reversal distance is d = n + 1 - c + h + f,

%C where c is the number of cycles in the breakpoint graph, h is the number of "hurdles" and f is the number of "fortresses" (0 or 1).

%C It turns out that c >= h+f.

%C This is because each hurdle is composed of one or more cycles, distinct from those in other hurdles, and fortresses can be worked into that, too.

%C So we may rewrite distance as d = n+1 - (c-h-f), where c-h-f>=0. Thus d_max <= n+1.

%C Except for n=0,1,3, it turns out we can make c-h-f=0.

%C When n=0: d(null,null) = 0, so d_max = 0 (has c=1, h=0)

%C When n=1: d( 1, -1 ) = 1, d( 1, 1 ) = 0, so d_max = 1 (first one has c=1, h=0)

%C When n=2: d( 2 1, 1 2 ) = 3, all other d(sigma, 1 2) < 3 (has c=h=1)

%C When n=3: d_max = 3 (25 solutions, found by brute force; 20 with c=1, h=0; 5 with c=2, h=1)

%C When n>3: d_max = n+1 and there are many solutions, obtained by creating a situation in which c=h, f=0. One of them is

%C n=2m: n 1 m+1 2 m+2 3 m+3 ... m-1 2m-1 m (has c=h=1)

%C n=2m+1: n 1 m+1 2 m+2 3 m+3 ... m 2m (has c=h=2)

%C Note that these are indeed signed permutations, in which all signs happen to be positive. This is because "hurdles" require all the signs to be the same.

%C Also note that these are just examples to show that at least one permutation has d=n+1, which proves d_max=n+1 by the bound; however, there are many more signed permutations that also achieve d=n+1. (End)

%D Brian Hayes, Sorting out the genome, Amer. Scientist, 95 (2007), 386-391.

%F a(n) = n+1 except for n=0,1,3.

%Y Cf. A058986, A078941.

%K nonn

%O 0,3

%A _Brian Hayes_, Oct 26 2007, based on email from Glenn Tesler (gptesler(AT)math.ucsd.edu)

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Last modified December 9 08:41 EST 2021. Contains 349627 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)