

A121052


Smallest positive integer m for which n^m is congruent to 1 modulo n^2+n1.


3



1, 4, 5, 9, 14, 40, 20, 35, 44, 108, 65, 60, 45, 90, 119, 135, 60, 30, 189, 209, 46, 100, 63, 299, 145, 700, 100, 135, 390, 928, 99, 84, 522, 280, 629, 605, 56, 1480, 779, 740, 430, 684, 60, 989, 517, 80, 40, 1175, 195, 2548, 240, 252, 715, 424, 81, 1595, 220, 310
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OFFSET

1,2


COMMENTS

The sequence arises as the order of a shuffle of n(n+1) cards in which cards are laid out in an array of n+1 rows of n columns; cards are picked up by column and laid out by rows.
More generally there is a function of two variables, f(r,c) for which f(r,c) is the least integer such that c^f(r,c) is congruent to 1 modulo rc1. Of interest is the ratio of phi(rc1)/f(r,c) or in the case of the sequence proposed, phi(n^2+n1)/m.
I would like to know if there is some direct way to predict these orders, or the ratio of phi(rc1)/f(r,c). The program provided produces the table f(r,c).


LINKS



EXAMPLE

a(2)=4 because 2^4=16=1 mod 5 but 2^1, 2^2 and 2^3 are not;
a(3)=5 because 3^5=1 mod 11 and 5 is the smallest such.


MAPLE

TAB:=proc(Rmin, Rmax, Cmin, Cmax) local r, c, T, m, ct, A; T:=array(1..RmaxRmin+1, 1..CmaxCmin+1); for r from Rmin to Rmax do for c from Cmin to Cmax do A:=c; ct:=1; m:=r*c1; while not A = 1 do A:=A*c mod m; ct:=ct+1; od; T[rRmin+1, cCmin+1]:=[ct, phi(m)]; od; od; eval(T) end:
# second Maple program:
a:= n> `if`(n=1, 1, numtheory[order](n, n^2+n1)):


MATHEMATICA

f[n_] := If[n == 1, 1, Block[{m = 1, k = n^2 + n  1}, While[Mod[n^m, k] != 1, m++ ]; m]]; Array[f, 59] (* Robert G. Wilson v *)


PROG

(PARI) print1(1, ", "); for(n=2, 60, q=n^2+n1; m=1; while(lift(Mod(n, q)^m)!=1, m++); print1(m, ", "))  (Klaus Brockhaus, Aug 09 2006)


CROSSREFS



KEYWORD

nonn


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



