

A101946


a(n) = 6*2^n  3*n  5.


9



1, 4, 13, 34, 79, 172, 361, 742, 1507, 3040, 6109, 12250, 24535, 49108, 98257, 196558, 393163, 786376, 1572805, 3145666, 6291391, 12582844, 25165753, 50331574, 100663219, 201326512, 402653101, 805306282, 1610612647, 3221225380, 6442450849, 12884901790
(list;
graph;
refs;
listen;
history;
text;
internal format)



OFFSET

0,2


COMMENTS

Sequence generated from a 3 X 3 matrix, companion to A101945.
Characteristic polynomial of M = x^3  4x^2 + 5x  2.
Sequence can also be generated by the same method as A061777 with slightly different rules. Refer to A061777, which is the "vertex to vertex" expansion version. For this case, the expandable vertices of the existing generation will contact the sides of the new ones, i.e., "vertex to side" expansion version. Let us assign the label "1" to the triangle at the origin; at nth generation add a triangle at each expandable vertex, i.e., each vertex where the added generations will not overlap the existing ones, although overlaps among new generations are allowed. The nonoverlapping triangles will have the same label value as a predecessor; for the overlapping ones, the label value will be sum of label values of predecessors. a(n) is the sum of all label values at nth generation. The triangles count is A005448. See illustration.  Kival Ngaokrajang, Sep 26 2014
The number of ways to select 0 or more nodes of a 2 X n rectangular grid such that the selected nodes are connected, but do not fill any 2 X 2 square. This question arises in logic puzzles such as Nurikabe.  Hugo van der Sanden, Feb 22 2024


LINKS



FORMULA

a(0)=1, a(1)=4, a(2)=13 and for n>2, a(n) = 4*a(n1)  5*a(n2) + 2*a(n3).
a(n) = right term in M^n * [1 1 1], where M = the 3X3 matrix [1 0 0 / 2 2 0 / 1 2 1]. M^n * [1 1 1] = [1 A033484(n) a(n)].
G.f.: (1+2*x^2)/((1x)^2*(12*x)).  Colin Barker, Sep 26 2014
E.g.f.: 6*exp(2*x)  (5+3*x)*exp(x).  G. C. Greubel, Feb 06 2022


EXAMPLE

a(4) = 79 = 4*34  5*13 + 2*4 = 4*a(3)  5*a(2) + 2*a(1).
a(4) = right term in M^4 * [1 1 1], since M^4 * [1 1 1] = [1 46 a(4)], where 46 = A033484(4).


MATHEMATICA

a[0]=1; a[1]=4; a[2]=13; a[n_]:= a[n]= 4a[n1] 5a[n2] +2a[n3]; Table[ a[n], {n, 0, 30}] (* Or *)
a[n_] := (MatrixPower[{{1, 0, 0}, {2, 2, 0}, {1, 2, 1}}, n].{{1}, {1}, {1}})[[3, 1]]; Table[ a[n], {n, 0, 30}] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Jan 12 2005 *)
Table[6*2^n3n5, {n, 0, 40}] (* or *) LinearRecurrence[{4, 5, 2}, {1, 4, 13}, 40] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jun 03 2017 *)


PROG

(PARI) Vec((2*x^2+1)/((x1)^2*(2*x1)) + O(x^100)) \\ Colin Barker, Sep 26 2014
(Magma) [6*2^n 3*n5: n in [0..40]]; // G. C. Greubel, Feb 06 2022
(Sage) [3*(2^(n+1) n2) +1 for n in (0..40)] # G. C. Greubel, Feb 06 2022


CROSSREFS



KEYWORD

nonn,easy


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS



STATUS

approved



