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 A010052 Characteristic function of squares: a(n) = 1 if n is a square, otherwise 0. 224

%I

%S 1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,

%T 0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,

%U 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0

%N Characteristic function of squares: a(n) = 1 if n is a square, otherwise 0.

%C Also parity of the divisor function A000005 if n >= 1. - _Omar E. Pol_, Jan 14 2012

%C This sequence can be considered as k=1 analog of A025426 (k=2), A025427 (k=3), A025428 (k=4); see also A000161. - _M. F. Hasler_, Jan 25 2013

%C Also, the decimal expansion of Sum_{n >= 0} 1/(10^n)^n. - _Eric Desbiaux_, Mar 15 2009, rephrased and simplified by _M. F. Hasler_, Jan 26 2013

%C Run lengths of zeros gives A005843, the nonnegative even numbers. - _Jeremy Gardiner_, Jan 14 2018

%D J.-P. Allouche and J. Shallit, Automatic Sequences, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003, pp. 3-4, also p. 166, Ex. 5.5.1.

%D T. M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, 1976, page 48, Problem 20.

%D Michel Rigo, Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems, 2 vols., Wiley, 2014. Mentions this sequence - see "List of Sequences" in Vol. 2.

%D S. Wolfram, A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media, 2002; p. 55.

%H Charles R Greathouse IV, <a href="/A010052/b010052.txt">Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000</a>

%H D. Christopher, T. Nadu, <a href="https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL18/Christopher/chris7.html">Partitions with Fixed Number of Sizes</a>, Journal of Integer Sequences, 15 (2015), #15.11.5.

%H Robert Price, <a href="/A010052/a010052.txt">Comments on A010052 concerning Elementary Cellular Automata</a>, Jan 29 2016

%H Y. Puri and T. Ward, <a href="http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL4/WARD/short.html">Arithmetic and growth of periodic orbits</a>, J. Integer Seqs., Vol. 4 (2001), #01.2.1.

%H Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/JacobiThetaFunctions.html">Jacobi Theta Functions</a>

%H Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ElementaryCellularAutomaton.html">Elementary Cellular Automaton</a>

%H S. Wolfram, <a href="http://wolframscience.com/">A New Kind of Science</a>

%H <a href="/index/Ce#cell">Index entries for sequences related to cellular automata</a>

%H <a href="/index/Ch#char_fns">Index entries for characteristic functions</a>

%H <a href="https://oeis.org/wiki/Index_to_Elementary_Cellular_Automata">Index to Elementary Cellular Automata</a>

%H <a href="/index/Eu#epf">Index entries for sequences computed from exponents in factorization of n</a>

%F a(n) = floor(sqrt(n)) - floor(sqrt(n-1)), for n > 0.

%F a(n) = A000005(n) mod 2, n > 0. - Ahmed Fares (ahmedfares(AT)my-deja.com), Apr 19 2001

%F G.f. A(x) satisfies: 0 = f(A(x), A(x^2), A(x^4)) where f(u, v, w) = (u-w)^2 - (v-w)*(v+w-1) - _Michael Somos_, Jul 19 2004

%F Dirichlet g.f.: zeta(2s). - _Franklin T. Adams-Watters_, Sep 11 2005

%F G.f.: (theta_3(0,x) + 1)/2, where theta_3 is a Jacobi theta function. - _Franklin T. Adams-Watters_, Jun 19 2006 [See A000122 for theta_3.]

%F a(n) = f(n,0) with f(x,y) = f(x-2*y-1,y+1) if x > 0, otherwise 0^(-x). - _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Sep 26 2008

%F a(n) = sumdiv(n,d,(-1)^bigomega(d)), for n >= 1. - _Benoit Cloitre_, Oct 25 2009

%F a(n) <= A093709(n). - _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Nov 14 2009

%F a(A000290(n)) = 1; a(A000037(n)) = 0. - _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Jun 20 2011

%F a(n) = 0 ^ A053186(n). - _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Feb 12 2012

%F a(n) = A063524(A007913(n)), for n > 0. - _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Jul 09 2014

%F a(n) = -(-1)^n * A258998(n) unless n = 0. 2 * a(n) = A000122(n) unless n = 0. - _Michael Somos_, Jun 16 2015

%F a(n) = A037011(A156552(n)), provided that A037011(n) = A000035(A106737(n)). [See A037011.] - _Antti Karttunen_, Nov 03 2017

%e G.f. = 1 + x + x^4 + x^9 + x^16 + x^25 + x^36 + x^49 + x^64 + x^81 + ...

%p readlib(issqr): f := i->if issqr(i) then 1 else 0; fi; [ seq(f(i),i=0..100) ];

%t lst = {}; Do[AppendTo[lst, 2*Sum[Floor[n/k] - Floor[(n - 1)/k], {k, Floor[Sqrt[n]]}] - DivisorSigma[0, n]], {n, 93}]; Prepend[lst, 1] (* _Eric Desbiaux_, Jan 29 2012 *)

%t Table[If[IntegerQ[Sqrt[n]],1,0],{n,0,100}] (* _Harvey P. Dale_, Jul 19 2014 *)

%t a[n_] := SeriesCoefficient[1/(1 - q)* QHypergeometricPFQ[{-q, -q}, {-(q^2)}, -q, -q], {q, 0, Abs@n}] (* _Mats Granvik_, Jan 01 2016 *)

%t Range[0, 120] /. {n_ /; IntegerQ@ Sqrt@ n -> 1, n_ /; n != 1 -> 0} (* _Michael De Vlieger_, Jan 02 2016 *)

%t a[n_] := Sum[If[Mod[n, k] == 0, Re[Sqrt[LiouvilleLambda[k]]*Sqrt[LiouvilleLambda[n/k]]], 0], {k, 1, n}] (* _Mats Granvik_, Aug 10 2018 *)

%o (PARI) {a(n) = issquare(n)};

%o (PARI) a(n)=if(n<1,1,sumdiv(n,d,(-1)^bigomega(d))) \\ _Benoit Cloitre_, Oct 25 2009

%o (PARI) a(n) = if (n<1, 1, direuler( p=2, n, 1/ (1 - X^2 ))[n]); \\ _Michel Marcus_, Mar 08 2015

%o a010052 n = fromEnum \$ a000196 n ^ 2 == n

%o -- _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Jan 26 2012, Feb 20 2011

%o a010052_list = concat (iterate (\xs -> xs ++ [0,0]) [1])

%o -- _Reinhard Zumkeller_, Apr 27 2012

%o (Scheme) (define (A010052 n) (if (zero? n) 1 (- (A000196 n) (A000196 (- n 1))))) ;; (For the definition of A000196, see under that entry). - _Antti Karttunen_, Nov 03 2017

%Y Column k=1 of A243148.

%Y Cf. A000005, A000122, A005369, A007913, A008836, A037011, A063524, A258998.

%Y First differences of A000196.

%K nonn,nice,easy,mult

%O 0,1

%A _N. J. A. Sloane_

%E More terms from _Franklin T. Adams-Watters_, Jun 19 2006

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Last modified November 17 05:59 EST 2018. Contains 317275 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)