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A006053 a(n) = a(n-1) + 2*a(n-2) - a(n-3), with a(0) = a(1) = 0, a(2) = 1.
(Formerly M2358)
41
0, 0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 9, 14, 28, 47, 89, 155, 286, 507, 924, 1652, 2993, 5373, 9707, 17460, 31501, 56714, 102256, 184183, 331981, 598091, 1077870, 1942071, 3499720, 6305992, 11363361, 20475625, 36896355, 66484244, 119801329, 215873462, 388991876, 700937471 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,5
COMMENTS
a(n+1) = S(n) for n>=1, where S(n) is the number of 01-words of length n, having first letter 1, in which all runlengths of 1's are odd. Example: S(4) counts 1000, 1001, 1010, 1110. See A077865. - Clark Kimberling, Jun 26 2004
For n>=1, number of compositions of n into floor(j/2) kinds of j's (see g.f.). - Joerg Arndt, Jul 06 2011
Counts walks of length n between the first and second nodes of P_3, to which a loop has been added at the end. Let A be the adjacency matrix of the graph P_3 with a loop added at the end. A is a 'reverse Jordan matrix' [0,0,1; 0,1,1; 1,1,0]. a(n) is obtained by taking the (1,2) element of A^n. - Paul Barry, Jul 16 2004
Interleaves A094790 and A094789. - Paul Barry, Oct 30 2004
a(n) appears in the formula for the nonnegative powers of rho:= 2*cos(Pi/7), the ratio of the smaller diagonal in the heptagon to the side length s=2*sin(Pi/7), when expressed in the basis <1,rho,sigma>, with sigma:=rho^2-1, the ratio of the larger heptagon diagonal to the side length, as follows. rho^n = C(n)*1 + C(n+1)*rho + a(n)*sigma, n>=0, with C(n) = A052547(n-2). See the Steinbach reference, and a comment under A052547. - Wolfdieter Lang, Nov 25 2010
If with the above notations the power basis <1,rho,rho^2> of Q(rho) is used, nonnegative powers of rho are given by rho^n = -a(n-1)*1 + A052547(n-1)*rho + a(n)*rho^2. For negative powers see A006054. - Wolfdieter Lang, May 06 2011
-a(n-1) also appears in the formula for the nonpositive powers of sigma (see the above comment for the definition, and the Steinbach basis <1,rho,sigma>) as follows: sigma^(-n) = A(n)*1 -a(n+1)*rho -A(n-1)*sigma, with A(n) = A052547(n), A(-1):=0. - Wolfdieter Lang, Nov 25 2010
REFERENCES
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
R. Witula, E. Hetmaniok and D. Slota, Sums of the powers of any order roots taken from the roots of a given polynomial, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Fibonacci Numbers and Their Applications (2012).
LINKS
Robin Chapman and Nicholas C. Singer, Eigenvalues of a bidiagonal matrix, Amer. Math. Monthly, 111 (2004), p. 441
Nachum Dershowitz, Between Broadway and the Hudson: A Bijection of Corridor Paths, arXiv:2006.06516 [math.CO], 2020.
Tomislav Došlić, Mate Puljiz, Stjepan Šebek, and Josip Žubrinić, On a variant of Flory model, arXiv:2210.12411 [math.CO], 2022.
László Németh and Dragan Stevanović, Graph solution of system of recurrence equations, Research Gate, 2023. See Table 2 at p. 6.
László Németh and László Szalay, Sequences Involving Square Zig-Zag Shapes, J. Int. Seq., Vol. 24 (2021), Article 21.5.2.
Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992; arXiv:0911.4975 [math.NT], 2009.
Simon Plouffe, 1031 Generating Functions, Appendix to Thesis, Montreal, 1992
R. Sachdeva and A. K. Agarwal, Combinatorics of certain restricted n-color composition functions, Discrete Mathematics, 340, (2017), 361-372.
Genki Shibukawa, New identities for some symmetric polynomials and their applications, arXiv:1907.00334 [math.CA], 2019.
P. Steinbach, Golden fields: a case for the heptagon, Math. Mag. 70 (1997), no. 1, 22-31.
Roman Witula, Ramanujan Type Trigonometric Formulas: The General Form for the Argument 2Pi/7, J. Integer Seq., 12 (2009), Article 09.8.5.
FORMULA
G.f.: x^2/(1 - x - 2*x^2 + x^3). - Emeric Deutsch, Dec 14 2004
a(n) = c^(n-2) - a(n-1)*(c-1) + (1/c)*a(n-2) for n > 3 where c = 2*cos(Pi/7). Example: a(7) = 14 = c^5 - 9*(c-1) + 4/c = 18.997607... - 7.21743962... + 2.219832528... - Gary W. Adamson, Jan 24 2010
G.f.: -1 + 1/(1 - Sum_{j>=1} floor(j/2)*x^j). - Joerg Arndt, Jul 06 2011
a(n+2) = A094790(n/2+1)*(1+(-1)^n)/2 + A094789((n+1)/2)*(1-(-1)^n)/2. - Paul Barry, Oct 30 2004
First differences of A028495. - Floor van Lamoen, Nov 02 2005
a(n) = A187065(2*n+1); a(n+1) = A187066(2*n+1) = A187067(2*n). - L. Edson Jeffery, Mar 16 2011
a(n) = 2^n*(c(1)^(n-1)*(c(1)+c(2)) + c(3)^(n-1)*(c(3)+c(6)) + c(5)^(n-1)*(c(5)+c(4)) )/7, with c(j):=cos(Pi*j/7). - Herbert Kociemba, Dec 18 2011
a(n+1)*(-1)^n*49^(1/3) = (c(1)/c(4))^(1/3)*(2*c(1))^n + (c(2)/c(1))^(1/3)*(2*c(2))^n + (c(4)/c(2))^(1/3)*(2c(4))^n = (c(2)/c(1))^(1/3)*(2*c(1))^(n+1) + (c(4)/c(2))^(1/3)*(c(2))^(n+1) + (c(1)/c(4))^(1/3)*(2*c(4))^(n+1), where c(j) := cos(2Pi*j/7); for the proof, see Witula et al.'s papers. - Roman Witula, Jul 21 2012
The previous formula connects the sequence a(n) with A214683, A215076, A215100, A120757. We may call a(n) the Ramanujan-type sequence number 2 for the argument 2*Pi/7. - Roman Witula, Aug 02 2012
a(n) = -A006054(1-n) for all n in Z. - Michael Somos, Nov 30 2014
G.f.: x^2 / (1 - x / (1 - 2*x / (1 + 5*x / (2 - x / (5 - 2*x))))). - Michael Somos, Jan 20 2017
a(n) ~ r*c^n, where r=0.241717... is one of the roots of 49*x^3-7*x+1, and c=2*cos(Pi/7) (as in Gary W. Adamson's formula). - Daniel Checa, Nov 04 2022
a(2n-1) = 2*a(n+1)*a(n) - a(n)^2 - a(n-1)^2. - Richard Peterson, May 25 2023
EXAMPLE
G.f. = x^2 + x^3 + 3*x^4 + 4*x^5 + 9*x^6 + 14*x^7 + 28*x^8 + 47*x^9 + ...
Regarding the description "number of compositions of n into floor(j/2) kinds of j's," the a(6)=9 compositions of 6 are (2a, 2a, 2a), (3a, 3a), (2a, 4a), (2a, 4b), (4a, 2a), (4b, 2a), (6a), (6b), (6c). - Bridget Tenner, Feb 25 2022
MAPLE
a[0]:=0: a[1]:=0: a[2]:=1: for n from 3 to 40 do a[n]:=a[n-1]+2*a[n-2]-a[n-3] od:seq(a[n], n=0..40); # Emeric Deutsch
A006053:=z**2/(1-z-2*z**2+z**3); # conjectured by Simon Plouffe in his 1992 dissertation
MATHEMATICA
LinearRecurrence[{1, 2, -1}, {0, 0, 1}, 50] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, May 25 2011 *)
PROG
(Magma) [ n eq 1 select 0 else n eq 2 select 0 else n eq 3 select 1 else Self(n-1) +2*Self(n-2) -Self(n-3): n in [1..40] ]: // Vincenzo Librandi, Aug 19 2011
(Haskell)
a006053 n = a006053_list !! n
a006053_list = 0 : 0 : 1 : zipWith (+) (drop 2 a006053_list)
(zipWith (-) (map (2 *) $ tail a006053_list) a006053_list)
-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 14 2011
(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<0, n = -1-n; polcoeff( -1 / (1 - 2*x - x^2 + x^3) + x * O(x^n), n), polcoeff( x^2 / (1 - x - 2*x^2 + x^3) + x * O(x^n), n))}; /* Michael Somos, Nov 30 2014 */
(SageMath)
@CachedFunction
def a(n): # a = A006053
if (n<3): return (n//2)
else: return a(n-1) + 2*a(n-2) - a(n-3)
[a(n) for n in range(41)] # G. C. Greubel, Feb 12 2023
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A014596 A002823 A109509 * A051841 A096081 A054162
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
More terms from Emeric Deutsch, Dec 14 2004
Typo in definition fixed by Reinhard Zumkeller, Oct 14 2011
STATUS
approved

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Last modified February 28 03:01 EST 2024. Contains 370379 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)