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A333565 O.g.f.: (1 + 4*x)/((1 + x)*sqrt(1 - 8*x)). 1
1, 7, 33, 223, 1537, 11007, 80385, 595455, 4456449, 33615871, 255148033, 1946337279, 14908784641, 114597822463, 883479412737, 6828492980223, 52895475040257, 410544577183743, 3191929428770817, 24855137310736383, 193811815161921537, 1513167009951514623, 11827298001565515777 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

This sequence satisfies the Gauss congruences a(n*p^k) == a(n*p^(k-1)) ( mod p^k ), for all prime p and positive integers n and k, since the power series E(x) := exp( Sum_{n >= 1} a(n)*x^n/n ) has integer coefficients. See Stanley, Ex. 5.2 (a), p. 72, and its solution on p. 104.

We conjecture that this sequence satisfies the stronger supercongruences a(n*p^k) == a(n*p^(k-1)) ( mod p^(3*k) ) for prime p >= 3 and positive integers n and k. The particular case when n = k = 1 follows from the corresponding result for A333564. Some examples of these congruences are given below.

REFERENCES

R. P. Stanley. Enumerative combinatorics. Vol. 2, (volume 62 of Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..22.

FORMULA

a(n) = (2^n)*binomial(2*n,n) + 3*sum_{k = 0..n-1} (-1)^(n+k+1)*2^k* binomial(2*k,k).

a(n) = 4*A333564(n) + (-1)^n for n >= 1.

a(n) = 2*A119259(n) - (-1)^n.

a(n) = (-1)^n + 4*Sum_{k = 1..n} (3*k-1)*2^(k-1)*A000108(k-1).

a(n) ~ 8^n * 4/(3*sqrt(Pi*n)).

Supercongruences: a(p) == 7 ( mod p^3 ) for all prime p >= 3.

O.g.f. A(x) = 1 + 7*x + 33*x^2 + ... satisfies the differential equation (x + 1)*(4*x + 1)*(8*x - 1)*A'(x) + (16*x^2 - 4*x + 7)*A(x) = 0. Cf. A333564.

P-recursive: n*(3*n - 4)*a(n) = (21*n^2 - 40*n + 12)*a(n-1) + 4*(3*n - 1)*(2*n - 3)*a(n-2) with a(0) = 1 and a(1) = 7.

Alternative form: (a(n) + a(n-1))/(a(n) - a(n-2)) = P(n)/Q(n), where P(n) = 4*(3*n - 1)*(2*n - 3) and Q(n) = (21*n^2 - 40*n + 12).

Also, n*a(n) = (3*n + 4)*a(n-1) + 4*(9*n - 19)*a(n-2) + 16*(2*n - 5)*a(n-3) with a(0) = 1, a(1) = 7 and a(2) = 33.

exp( Sum_{n >= 1} a(n)*x^n/n ) = 1 + 7*x + 41*x^2 + 247*x^3 + ... is the o.g.f. of the second diagonal of triangle A113647. See also A115137.

EXAMPLE

Examples of supercongruences:

a(11) - a(1) = 1946337279 - 7 = (2^3)*(11^3)*182789 == 0 ( mod 11^3 ).

a(2*11) - a(2) = 11827298001565515777 - 33 = (2^5)*(3^2)*(11^3)*107* 288357478039 == 0 ( mod 11^3 ).

a(5^2) - a(5) = 5680983691406772011007 - 11007 = (2^8)*(3^3)*(5^6)*7* 19*1123*352183001 == 0 ( mod 5^6 ).

MAPLE

a := proc (n) option remember; `if`(n = 0, 1, `if`(n = 1, 7, `if`(n = 2, 33, ((3*n+4)*a(n-1)+(36*n-76)*a(n-2)+(32*n-80)*a(n-3))/n)))

end proc:

seq(a(n), n = 0..25);

MATHEMATICA

a[n_] := (-1)^n - 2^(n+2) Binomial[2n, n-1] Hypergeometric2F1[1, 2n +1, n + 2, 2];

Table[Simplify[a[n]], {n, 0, 22}] (* Peter Luschny, Apr 13 2020 *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000984, A113647, A115137, A119259, A333564.

Sequence in context: A085636 A064306 A292427 * A215125 A204706 A197995

Adjacent sequences:  A333562 A333563 A333564 * A333566 A333567 A333568

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Peter Bala, Apr 11 2020

STATUS

approved

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Last modified September 18 06:40 EDT 2020. Contains 337166 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)