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 A301376 Number of ways to write n^2 as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and z <= w such that x^2-(3*y)^2 = 4^k for some k = 0,1,2,.... 25
 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 4, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 1, 5, 6, 2, 2, 10, 5, 4, 3, 2, 7, 7, 3, 5, 4, 3, 1, 12, 8, 2, 6, 4, 5, 10, 2, 7, 13, 8, 5, 10, 6, 6, 3, 8, 4, 7, 7, 8, 11, 4, 3, 17, 9, 5, 4, 8, 5, 9, 1, 8, 14, 8, 8, 13, 5, 8, 6, 11, 10, 7, 5, 13, 15, 7, 2 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 1,3 COMMENTS Conjecture: a(n) > 0 for all n > 0. Moreover, any positive square n^2 can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w integers and y even such that x^2 - (3*y)^2 = 4^k for some k = 0,1,2,.... We have verifed this for all n = 1..10^7. Compare this conjecture with the conjectures in A299537. As 3*A001353(n)^2 + 1 = A001075(n)^2, the conjecture in A300441 implies that any positive square can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w integers such that x^2 - 3*y^2 = 4^k for some k = 0,1,2,.... See also A301391 for a similar conjecture. LINKS Zhi-Wei Sun, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000 Zhi-Wei Sun, Refining Lagrange's four-square theorem, J. Number Theory 175(2017), 167-190. Zhi-Wei Sun, Restricted sums of four squares, arXiv:1701.05868 [math.NT], 2017-2018. EXAMPLE a(1) = 1 since 1^2 = 1^2 + 0^2 + 0^2 + 0^2 with 1^2 - (3*0)^2 = 4^0. a(5) = 1 since 5^2 = 4^2 + 0^2 + 0^2 + 3^2 with 4^2 - (3*0)^2 = 4^2. a(7) = 1 since 7^2 = 2^2 + 0^2 + 3^2 + 6^2 with 2^2 - (3*0)^2 = 4^1. a(31) = 3 since 31^2 = 10^2 + 2^2 + 4^2 + 29^2 with 10^2 - (3*2)^2 = 4^3, and 31^2 = 20^2 + 4^2 + 4^2 + 23^2 = 20^2 + 4^2 + 16^2 + 17^2 with 20^2 - (3*4)^2 = 4^4. MATHEMATICA f[n_]:=f[n]=FactorInteger[n]; g[n_]:=g[n]=Sum[Boole[Mod[Part[Part[f[n], i], 1]-3, 4]==0&&Mod[Part[Part[f[n], i], 2], 2]==1], {i, 1, Length[f[n]]}]==0; QQ[n_]:=QQ[n]=n==0||(n>0&&g[n]); SQ[n_]:=SQ[n]=IntegerQ[Sqrt[n]]; tab={}; Do[r=0; Do[If[SQ[4^k+9y^2]&&QQ[n^2-4^k-10y^2], Do[If[SQ[n^2-(4^k+10y^2)-z^2], r=r+1], {z, 0, Sqrt[(n^2-4^k-10y^2)/2]}]], {k, 0, Log[2, n]}, {y, 0, Sqrt[(n^2-4^k)/10]}]; tab=Append[tab, r], {n, 1, 80}]; Print[tab] CROSSREFS Cf. A000118, A000290, A000302, A299537, A299794, A299924, A300219, A300396, A300441, A300510, A301391. Sequence in context: A224838 A030272 A157128 * A307828 A280698 A217667 Adjacent sequences:  A301373 A301374 A301375 * A301377 A301378 A301379 KEYWORD nonn AUTHOR Zhi-Wei Sun, Mar 19 2018 STATUS approved

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Last modified May 30 09:15 EDT 2020. Contains 334712 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)