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 A295290 a(n) is the smallest triangular number t such that t - n is a square, or -1 if no such triangular number exists. 1
 0, 1, 3, 3, -1, 6, 6, -1, -1, 10, 10, 15, 21, -1, 15, 15, -1, 21, -1, 28, 21, 21, -1, -1, 28, -1, -1, 28, 28, 45, 55, -1, 36, -1, -1, 36, 36, -1, -1, 55, -1, 45, 78, -1, 45, 45, 55, -1, -1, -1, 66, 55, -1, 78, 55, 55, 105, 66, -1, -1, -1, -1, 66, -1, -1, 66 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,3 COMMENTS Smallest triangular number (A000217) that exceeds a square by exactly n, or -1 if there is no such triangular number. LINKS Robert Israel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000 FORMULA a(t) = t for every triangular number t. a(t-1) = t for every positive triangular number t. EXAMPLE a(0) = 0 because 0 is the smallest number that is both triangular and square. a(12) = 21 because 21 - 12 = 9 = 3^2 and there is no triangular number t < 21 such that t - 12 is a square. a(4) = -1 because there exists no triangular number t such that t - 4 is a square. MAPLE f:= proc(n) local s, t, R, v, R0;   R:= [isolve(s^2 - 2*t^2 = 8*n+1)];   if R = [] then return -1 fi;   v:= indets(R, name) minus {s, t};   R0:= remove(hastype, eval(R, v=0), negative);   s:= subs(R0, s);   (s^2-1)/8; end proc: map(f, [\$0..100]); # Robert Israel, Nov 22 2017 MATHEMATICA a[n_] := Module[{s, t, k}, If[Solve[s^2 - 2t^2 == 8n+1, {s, t}, Integers] == {}, Return[-1]]; For[k = 0, True, k++, t = k(k+1)/2; If[IntegerQ[ Sqrt[t-n]], Return[t]]]]; a /@ Range[0, 100] (* Jean-François Alcover, Oct 16 2020 *) CROSSREFS Cf. A000217 (triangular numbers), A000290 (squares), A001100 (square triangular numbers). Sequence in context: A208539 A174128 A131070 * A165202 A010468 A082009 Adjacent sequences:  A295287 A295288 A295289 * A295291 A295292 A295293 KEYWORD sign AUTHOR Jon E. Schoenfield, Nov 19 2017 STATUS approved

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Last modified April 13 23:52 EDT 2021. Contains 342941 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)