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 A277847 Size of the largest subset of Z/nZ fixed by x -> x^2. 1
 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 4, 4, 6, 4, 4, 8, 4, 2, 2, 8, 10, 4, 8, 12, 12, 4, 6, 8, 10, 8, 8, 8, 16, 2, 12, 4, 8, 8, 10, 20, 8, 4, 6, 16, 22, 12, 8, 24, 24, 4, 22, 12, 4, 8, 14, 20, 12, 8, 20, 16, 30, 8, 16, 32, 16, 2, 8, 24, 34, 4, 24, 16, 36, 8, 10, 20, 12, 20, 24, 16, 40, 4, 28, 12, 42, 16, 4, 44 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 1,2 COMMENTS Question raised by David W. Wilson, equivalent formulae given independently by Don Reble and Robert Israel, cf. link to the SeqFan list. "Fixed" means that f(S) = S, for the subset S and f = x  -> x^2. The largest stable or "invariant" subset would be Z/nZ itself. LINKS David W. Wilson, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000 Don Reble, in reply to D. Wilson, Mapping problem, SeqFan list, Nov. 2016. (Click "Next" twice for R. Israel's reply.) FORMULA Multiplicative with a(p^e) = oddpart(phi(p^e))+1, where oddpart = A000265, phi = A000010. Multiplicative with a(p^e) = 2 if p = 2; oddpart(p-1)*p^(e-1) + 1 if p > 2. EXAMPLE a(25) = 6 is the cardinal of S = {0, 1, 6, 11, 16, 21}, the largest set of residues modulo 25 fixed by the mapping n -> n^2. - David W. Wilson, Nov 08 2016 MAPLE f:= proc(n) local F; F:= ifactors(n)[2]; convert(map(proc(t) local p; p:=numtheory:-phi(t[1]^t[2]); 1+p/2^padic:-ordp(p, 2) end proc, F), `*`) end proc: # Robert Israel, Nov 09 2016 PROG (PARI) A277847(n)={prod( i=1, #n=factor(n)~, if(n[1, i]>2, 1 + n[1, i]>>valuation(n[1, i]-1, 2) * n[1, i]^(n[2, i]-1), 2))} (PARI) a(n, f=factor(n)~)=prod(i=1, #f, (n=eulerphi(f[1, i]^f[2, i]))>>valuation(n, 2)+1) \\ about 10% slower than the above CROSSREFS Cf. A000010. Sequence in context: A224516 A023161 A023155 * A085311 A052273 A074912 Adjacent sequences:  A277844 A277845 A277846 * A277848 A277849 A277850 KEYWORD nonn,mult AUTHOR M. F. Hasler, Nov 10 2016 STATUS approved

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Last modified April 26 04:55 EDT 2019. Contains 322469 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)