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A277828 Least number of tosses of a fair coin needed to have an even chance or better of getting a run of at least m consecutive heads or consecutive tails. 0
1, 2, 5, 11, 23, 45, 90, 179, 357, 712, 1422, 2842, 5681, 11360, 22716, 45430, 90856, 181709, 363413, 726822, 1453640, 2907276, 5814546, 11629086, 23258166, 46516327, 93032647 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

There are a family of sequences that represent the number of sequences of tosses of a fair coin to n tosses where there are no runs of m or more consecutive heads or consecutive tails. Some are given in this Encyclopedia. Their general form is given as part of the formula below. As n increases, the proportion of sequences of tosses that meet this condition decreases. When that proportion becomes a half or less of the total number of sequences of tosses, there is an even or better chance that a run of m consecutive heads or m consecutive tails occurs.

There is actually a family of sequences of which the above sequence is an instance: those in which, for successive values of m, r*g(n) <= 2^n for r > 1.

a(n) - ceiling((log 2)*2^n + (1-log 2)*n + (log 2)/2-2) equals 0 or (almost never) 1 for all n. Obtained using Weisstein's exact formula for Fibonacci k-step number seeing that the function g(N) described in the Formula section is 2*A092921(n-1,N+1). - Andrey Zabolotskiy, Nov 01 2016

REFERENCES

Marcus du Sautoy, The Number Mysteries, Fourth Estate, 2011, pages 126 - 127.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..27.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Coin Tossing

FORMULA

For successive integers m, where g(n) is the number of sequences of tosses of a fair coin with runs of fewer than m consecutive heads or tails out of all possible sequences of tosses to n tosses, g(n) = 2^n where n <= m-1, and thereafter g(n) = g(n-1) + g(n-2) + ... + g(n-m+1) and a(m) = the least value of n for which 2g(n) <= 2^n.

MAPLE

a:= proc(n) option remember; local l, j; Digits:= 50;

      if n<3 then n else l:= 0$n;

        for j from 0 while l[n]<1/2 do l:= seq(

          (`if`(i=1, 1.0, l[i-1])+l[n-1])/2, i=1..n)

        od; j

      fi

    end:

seq(a(n), n=1..16);  # Alois P. Heinz, Nov 01 2016

PROG

(Python)

def a(m):

    if m == 1:

        return 1

    g = [2**i for i in range(1, m)]

    sg, lim, n = sum(g), 2**(m-1), m

    while True:

        g.append(sg)

        sg <<= 1

        sg -= g.pop(0)

        if g[-1] <= lim:

            return n

        lim <<= 1

        n += 1

print([a(i) for i in range(1, 15)])

# Andrey Zabolotskiy, Nov 01 2016

(PARI) step(v)=my(n=#v); concat([sum(i=1, n-1, v[i])], concat(vector(n-2, i, v[i]), 2*v[n]+v[n-1]))

a(n)=if(n<3, return(n)); my(v=vector(n), flips=1, needed=1/2); v[1]=1; while(v[n]<needed, v=step(v); needed<<=1; flips++); flips \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Nov 02 2016

(PARI) a(n)=if(n<3, return(n)); my(M=2^(n-1), v=powers(2, n-1)[2..n], i=1, m=n); while(1, v[i]=vecsum(v); if(v[i]<=M, return(m)); if(i++>#v, i=1); M*=2; m++) \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Nov 02 2016

CROSSREFS

Cf. A135491, A135492, A135493.

Sequence in context: A227637 A171985 A005986 * A147878 A179902 A140992

Adjacent sequences:  A277825 A277826 A277827 * A277829 A277830 A277831

KEYWORD

nonn,more

AUTHOR

Tim Miles, Nov 01 2016

EXTENSIONS

a(11)-a(22) from Andrey Zabolotskiy, Nov 01 2016

a(23)-a(27) from Alois P. Heinz, Nov 02 2016

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 20 17:24 EDT 2018. Contains 316392 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)