To write an integer n in basek hereditary representation, write n in ordinary basek representation, and then do the same recursively for all exponents which are greater than k.
For example, the hereditary representation of 132132 in base2 is:
132132 = 2^17 + 2^10 + 2^5 + 2^2
= 2^(2^4 + 1) + 2^(2^3 + 2) + 2^(2^2 + 1) + 2^2
= 2^(2^(2^2) + 1) + 2^(2^(2+1) + 2) + 2^(2^2 + 1) + 2^2.
Define B_k(n) to be the function that substitutes k+1 for all the bases of the basek hereditary representation of n.
E.g., B_2(101) = B_2(2^(2^2 + 2) + 2^(2^2 + 1) + 2^2 + 1) = 3^(3^3 + 3) + 3^(3^3 + 1) + 3^3 + 1 = 228767924549638.
(Sometimes B_k(n) is referred to as n "bumped" from base k.)
The Goodstein function is defined as: G_k(n) = B_{k+1}(G_{k1}(n))  1 with G_0(n) = n, i.e., iteration of bumping the number to the next larger base and subtracting one; see example section for instances.
Goodstein's theorem says that for any nonnegative n, the sequence G_k(n) eventually stabilizes and then decreases by 1 in each step until it reaches 0. (The subsequent values of G_k(n) < 0 are not part of the sequence.)
