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A263011 Numbers D == 1 (mod 8), not a square, and if composite without prime factors 3 or 5 (mod 8). 7
17, 41, 73, 89, 97, 113, 137, 161, 193, 217, 233, 241, 257, 281, 313, 329, 337, 353, 401, 409, 433, 449, 457, 497, 521, 553, 569, 577, 593, 601, 617, 641, 673, 697, 713, 721, 761, 769, 809, 833, 857, 881, 889, 929, 937, 953, 977, 1009, 1033, 1049, 1057, 1081, 1097, 1129, 1153, 1169, 1193, 1201, 1217 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

These numbers are the odd D candidates for the (generalized) Pell equation x^2 - D*y^2 = +8 which could have proper solutions (x, y) with x and y both odd (and gcd(x, y) = 1).

Proof: Put x =2*X + 1, y = 2*Y + 1; then 8*(T(X) - D*T(Y)) = 8 - 1 + D = 7 + D, with the triangular numbers T = A000217. Hence, D == -7 (mod 8) == +1 (mod 8). Only nonsquare numbers D are considered for the Pell equation (square D leads to a factorization with only one solution: D = 1, (x, y) = (3, 1)). Consider a prime factor p == 3 or 5 (mod 8) (A007520 or A007521) of D. Then x^2 == 8 (mod p). Because the Legendre symbol (8/p) = (2*2^2/p) = (2/p) ==  (-1)^(p^2-1)/8 (see, e.g., Nagell, eq. (3), p. 138) this becomes -1 for these primes p, and therefore a candidate for D cannot have any prime factors 3 or 5 (mod 8).

However, not all of these candidates admit solutions. For the exceptions see A264348.

The remaining Ds (that admit solutions) are given in A263012.

REFERENCES

T. Nagell, Introduction to Number Theory, Chelsea Publishing Company, New York, 1964.

LINKS

Michael De Vlieger, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000

MATHEMATICA

Select[8 Range@ 154 + 1, Or[PrimeQ@ #, CompositeQ@ # && AllTrue[Union@ Mod[First /@ FactorInteger@ #, 8], ! MemberQ[{3, 5}, #] &]] && ! IntegerQ@ Sqrt@ # &] (* Michael De Vlieger, Dec 11 2015, Version 10 *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A263012, A264348.

Sequence in context: A147215 A126790 A089200 * A263012 A172280 A004625

Adjacent sequences:  A263008 A263009 A263010 * A263012 A263013 A263014

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Wolfdieter Lang, Nov 17 2015

STATUS

approved

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Last modified July 20 05:56 EDT 2019. Contains 325168 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)