The number of labelled increasing binary trees with an associated permutation avoiding 312 in the classical sense. The tree’s permutation is found by recording the labels in the order they appear in a breadth-first search. (Note that a breadth-first search reading word is equivalent to reading the tree labels left to right by levels, starting with the root).
In some cases, the same breadth-first search reading permutation can be found on differently shaped trees. This sequence gives the number of trees, not the number of permutations.