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A232325 Engel expansion of 1 to the base Pi. 8
4, 12, 72, 2111, 14265, 70424, 308832, 4371476, 320218450, 1101000257, 14020589841, 102772320834, 963205851651, 5997003656523, 50649135127796, 640772902021920, 2101002284323870, 35029677728070645, 176996397541889098, 1433436623499128186 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,1

COMMENTS

Let r and b be positive real numbers. We define an Engel expansion of r to the base b to be a (possibly infinite) nondecreasing sequence of positive integers [a(0), a(1), a(2), ...] such that we have the series representation r = b/a(0) + b^2/(a(0)*a(1)) + b^3/(a(0)*a(1)*a(2)) + .... Depending on the values of r and b such an expansion may not exist, and if it does exist it may not be unique.

When b = 1 we recover the ordinary Engel expansion of r. See A181565 and A230601 for some predictable Engel expansions to a base b other than 1.

In the particular case that the base b >= 1 and 0 < r < b then we can find an Engel expansion of r to the base b using the following algorithm:

Choose values for r and b.

Define the map f(x) (which depends on the base b) by f(x) = x/b*ceiling(b/x) - 1 and let f^(n)(x) denote the n-th iterate of the map f(x), with the convention that f^(0)(x) = x.

For n = 0, 1, 2, ... define the integer a(n) = ceiling(b/f^(n)(r)) until f^n(r) = 0.

When b >= 1 and 0 < r < b the sequence a(n) produced by this algorithm provides an Engel expansion of r to the base b.

For the present sequence we apply this algorithm with r := 1 and with the base b := Pi.

We can also get an alternating series representation for r in powers of b (still assuming b >= 1 and 0 < r < b), called a Pierce series expansion of r to the base b, by running the above algorithm but now with input values -r and base b. See A232326.

In addition, we can obtain two further series expansions for r in powers of b by running the algorithm with either the input values r and base -b or with the input values -r and base -b. See examples below. See A232327 and A232328 for other examples of these types of expansions.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..19.

Wikipedia, Engel Expansion

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Pierce Expansion

FORMULA

a(n) = ceiling(Pi/f^(n)(1)), where f^(n)(x) denotes the n-th iterate of the map f(x) = x/Pi*(ceiling(Pi/x)) - 1, with the convention that f^(0)(x) = x.

Engel series expansion of 1 to the base Pi:

1 = Pi/4 + Pi^2/(4*12) + Pi^3/(4*12*72) + Pi^4/(4*12*72*2111) + ....

The associated power series F(z) := 1 - ( z/4 + z^2/(4*12) + z^3/(4*12*72) + z^4/(4*12*72*2111) + ...) has a zero at z = Pi. Truncating the series F(z) to n terms produces a polynomial F_n(z) with rational coefficients which has a real zero close to Pi. See below for an example.

EXAMPLE

Truncation F_5(z) = 1 - ( z/4 + z^2/(4*12) + z^3/(4*12*72) + z^4/(4*12*72*2111) + z^5/(4*12*72*2111*14265) ). The polynomial has a positive real zero at z = 3.14159 26535 (9...), which agrees with Pi to 10 decimal places.

Comparison of generalized Engel expansions of 1 to the base Pi.

A232325: Engel series expansion of 1 to the base Pi

1 = Pi/4 + Pi^2/(4*12) + Pi^3/(4*12*72) + Pi^4/(4*12*72*2111) + ....

A232326: Pierce series expansion of 1 to the base Pi

1 = Pi/3 - Pi^2/(3*69) + Pi^3/(3*69*310) - Pi^4/(3*69*310*1017) + - ....

Running the algorithm with the input values r = 1 and base -Pi produces the expansion

1 = Pi/3 - Pi^2/(3*70) - Pi^3/(3*70*740) + Pi^4/(3*70*740*6920) + - - + ....

Running the algorithm with the input values r = -1 and base -Pi produces the expansion

1 = Pi/4 + Pi^2/(4*11) - Pi^3/(4*11*73) - Pi^4/(4*11*73*560) + + - - ....

MAPLE

# Define the n-th iterate of the map f(x) = x/b*ceiling(b/x) - 1

map_iterate := proc(n, b, x) option remember;

if n = 0 then

   x

else

  -1 + 1/b*thisproc(n-1, b, x)*ceil(b/thisproc(n-1, b, x))

end if

end proc:

# Define the terms of the expansion of x to the base b

a := n -> ceil(evalf(b/map_iterate(n, b, x))):

Digits:= 500:

# Choose values for x and b

x := 1: b:= Pi:

seq(a(n), n = 0..19);

CROSSREFS

Cf. A014014, A006784, A061233, A185565, A230601, A232326, A232327, A232328, A303877.

Sequence in context: A166746 A052558 A190340 * A291487 A133666 A318432

Adjacent sequences:  A232322 A232323 A232324 * A232326 A232327 A232328

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Peter Bala, Nov 25 2013

STATUS

approved

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Last modified January 26 17:16 EST 2020. Contains 331280 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)