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 A232178 Least k>=0 such that triangular(n) + k^2 is a square, or -1 if no such k exists. 4
 0, 0, 1, -1, -1, 1, 2, 6, 0, 2, 3, -1, -1, 3, 4, 1, 15, 4, 5, -1, -1, 5, 6, 20, 10, 6, 7, -1, -1, 7, 8, 27, 1, 8, 9, -1, -1, 9, 10, 2, 36, 10, 11, -1, -1, 11, 12, 41, 7, 0, 13, -1, -1, 13, 6, 24, 2, 14, 15, -1, -1, 15, 16, 3, 6, 8, 17, -1, -1, 17, 18, 62, 64, 18, 19 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,7 COMMENTS Triangular(n) = n*(n+1)/2. LINKS Chai Wah Wu, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..10000 EXAMPLE a(7) = 6 because the least k such that triangular(n) + k^2 is a square is k=6: 7*(7+1)/2 + 6^2 = 28+36 = 64 = 8^2. MATHEMATICA Join[{0}, Table[k = 0; While[k < n && ! IntegerQ[Sqrt[n*(n + 1)/2 + k^2]], k++]; If[k == n, k = -1]; k, {n, 100}]] (* T. D. Noe, Nov 21 2013 *) PROG (Python) from __future__ import division from sympy import divisors def A232178(n):     if n == 0:         return 0     t = n*(n+1)//2     ds = divisors(t)     l, m = divmod(len(ds), 2)     if m:         return 0     for i in range(l-1, -1, -1):         x = ds[i]         y = t//x         a, b = divmod(y-x, 2)         if not b:             return a     return -1 # Chai Wah Wu, Sep 12 2017 CROSSREFS Cf. A000217, A000290. Cf. A082183 (least k>0 such that triangular(n) + triangular(k) is a triangular number). Cf. A232177 (least k>0 such that triangular(n) + triangular(k) is a square). Cf. A232176 (least k>0 such that n^2 + triangular(k) is a square). Cf. A232179 (least k>=0 such that n^2 + triangular(k) is a triangular number). Cf. A101157 (least k>0 such that triangular(n) + k^2 is a triangular number). Sequence in context: A072340 A118354 A080730 * A016590 A079461 A220233 Adjacent sequences:  A232175 A232176 A232177 * A232179 A232180 A232181 KEYWORD sign AUTHOR Alex Ratushnyak, Nov 20 2013 STATUS approved

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Last modified April 12 12:31 EDT 2021. Contains 342920 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)