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A228929 Optimal ascending continued fraction expansion of Pi - 3. 6
7, -113, 4739, -46804, 134370, -614063, 1669512, -15474114, -86232481, 1080357006, -8574121305, -24144614592, 133884333083, -2239330253016, -6347915250018, 14541933941298, -42301908155404, -298013673554972, 5177473084279656, -46709468571434452, 1201667304102142095, -68508286025632748778, 850084640720511629243, -2458418086834560217354 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

Definition of the expansion: for a positive real number x, there is always a unique sequence of signed integers with increasing absolute value |a(i)|>|a(i-1)| such that x =floor(x)+ 1/a(1) + 1/a(1)/a(2) + 1/a(1)/a(2)/a(3) + 1/a(1)/a(2)/a(3)/a(4) ... or equivalently x=floor(x)+1/a(1)*(1+1/a(2)*(1+1/a(3)*(1+1/a(4)*(1+...)))) giving the fastest converging series with this representation. This formula can be represented as a regular ascending continued fraction. The expansion is similar to Engel and Pierce expansions, but the sign of the terms is not predefined and determined by the algorithm for optimizing the convergence.

For x rational number the expansion has a finite number of terms, for x irrational an infinite number. Empirically the sequence doesn't show any evident regularity except in some interesting cases.

LINKS

G. C. Greubel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..500

FORMULA

Given a positive real number x, let z(0)=x-floor(x) and z(k+1)=abs(z(k))*round(1/abs(z(k)))-1 ; then a(n)=sign(z(n))*round(1/abs(z(n))) for n>0.

EXAMPLE

Pi = 3 + 1/7*(1 - 1/113*(1 + 1/4739*(1 - 1/46804*(1 + 1/134370*(1 - 1/614063*(1 + 1/1669512*(1 + ...))))))).

MAPLE

# Slow procedure valid for every number

ArticoExp := proc (n, q::posint)::list; local L, i, z; Digits := 50000; L := []; z := n-floor(n); for i to q+1 do if z = 0 then break end if; L := [op(L), round(1/abs(z))*sign(evalf(z))]; z := abs(z)*round(1/abs(z))-1 end do; return L end proc

# Fast procedure, not suited for rational numbers

ArticoExp := proc (n, q::posint)::list; local L, i, z; Digits := 50000; L := []; z := frac(evalf(n)); for i to q+1 do if z = 0 then break end if; L := [op(L), round(1/abs(z))*sign(z)]; z := abs(z)*round(1/abs(z))-1 end do; return L end proc

# List the first 20 terms of the expansion of Pi

ArticoExp(Pi, 20)

MATHEMATICA

ArticoExp[x_, n_] :=  Round[1/#] & /@ NestList[Round[1/Abs[#]]*Abs[#] - 1 &, FractionalPart[x], n]; Block[{$MaxExtraPrecision = 50000}, ArticoExp[Pi, 20]]

PROG

(DERIVE)

ArticoExp(x, n) := VECTOR(ROUND(1, ABS(k))*SIGN(k), k, ITERATES(ROUND(1, ABS(u))*ABS(u) - 1, u, MOD(x), n))

Precision:=Mixed

PrecisionDigits:=10000

ArticoExp(PI, 20)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A006784, A015884, A228930, A228931, A228932, A228933, A228934.

Sequence in context: A152927 A064330 A159552 * A086788 A199672 A240288

Adjacent sequences:  A228926 A228927 A228928 * A228930 A228931 A228932

KEYWORD

sign

AUTHOR

Giovanni Artico, Sep 08 2013

STATUS

approved

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Last modified January 28 22:40 EST 2020. Contains 331328 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)