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A226874 Number T(n,k) of n-length words w over a k-ary alphabet {a1, a2, ..., ak} such that #(w,a1) >= #(w,a2) >= ... >= #(w,ak) >= 1, where #(w,x) counts the letters x in word w; triangle T(n,k), n >= 0, 0 <= k <= n, read by rows. 19
1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 3, 6, 0, 1, 10, 12, 24, 0, 1, 15, 50, 60, 120, 0, 1, 41, 180, 300, 360, 720, 0, 1, 63, 497, 1260, 2100, 2520, 5040, 0, 1, 162, 1484, 6496, 10080, 16800, 20160, 40320, 0, 1, 255, 5154, 20916, 58464, 90720, 151200, 181440, 362880 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,6

COMMENTS

T(n,k) is the sum of multinomials M(n; lambda), where lambda ranges over all partitions of n into parts that form a multiset of size k.

LINKS

Alois P. Heinz, Rows n = 0..140, flattened

Wikipedia, Iverson bracket

Wikipedia, Multinomial coefficients

Wikipedia, Partition (number theory)

FORMULA

T(n,k) = A226873(n,k) - [k>0] * A226873(n,k-1).

EXAMPLE

T(4,2) = 10: aaab, aaba, aabb, abaa, abab, abba, baaa, baab, baba, bbaa.

T(4,3) = 12: aabc, aacb, abac, abca, acab, acba, baac, baca, bcaa, caab, caba, cbaa.

T(5,2) = 15: aaaab, aaaba, aaabb, aabaa, aabab, aabba, abaaa, abaab, ababa, abbaa, baaaa, baaab, baaba, babaa, bbaaa.

Triangle T(n,k) begins:

  1;

  0,  1;

  0,  1,   2;

  0,  1,   3,    6;

  0,  1,  10,   12,   24;

  0,  1,  15,   50,   60,   120;

  0,  1,  41,  180,  300,   360,   720;

  0,  1,  63,  497, 1260,  2100,  2520,  5040;

  0,  1, 162, 1484, 6496, 10080, 16800, 20160, 40320;

MAPLE

b:= proc(n, i, t) option remember;

      `if`(t=1, 1/n!, add(b(n-j, j, t-1)/j!, j=i..n/t))

    end:

T:= (n, k)-> `if`(n*k=0, `if`(n=k, 1, 0), n!*b(n, 1, k)):

seq(seq(T(n, k), k=0..n), n=0..12);

# second Maple program:

b:= proc(n, i) option remember; expand(

      `if`(n=0, 1, `if`(i<1, 0, add(x^j*b(n-i*j, i-1)*

      combinat[multinomial](n, n-i*j, i$j), j=0..n/i))))

    end:

T:= n-> (p-> seq(coeff(p, x, i), i=0..n))(b(n$2)):

seq(T(n), n=0..12);

MATHEMATICA

b[n_, i_, t_] := b[n, i, t] = If[t == 1, 1/n!, Sum[b[n - j, j, t - 1]/j!, {j, i, n/t}]]; t[n_, k_] := If[n*k == 0, If[n == k, 1, 0], n!*b[n, 1, k]]; Table[Table[t[n, k], {k, 0, n}], {n, 0, 12}] // Flatten (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Dec 13 2013, translated from first Maple *)

PROG

(PARI)

T(n)={Vec(serlaplace(prod(k=1, n, 1/(1-y*x^k/k!) + O(x*x^n))))}

{my(t=T(10)); for(n=1, #t, for(k=0, n-1, print1(polcoeff(t[n], k), ", ")); print)} \\ Andrew Howroyd, Dec 20 2017

CROSSREFS

Columns k=0-10 give: A000007, A057427, A226881, A226882, A226883, A226884, A226885, A226886, A226887, A226888, A226889.

Main diagonal gives: A000142.

Row sums give: A005651.

T(2n,n) gives A318796.

Cf. A131632, A285824, A292222, A327803.

Sequence in context: A330618 A062104 A257783 * A267901 A276561 A325746

Adjacent sequences:  A226871 A226872 A226873 * A226875 A226876 A226877

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Alois P. Heinz, Jun 21 2013

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 24 19:14 EDT 2020. Contains 334580 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)