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A220420 Express the Sum_{n>=0} p(n)*x^n, where p(n) is the partition function, as a product Product_{k>=1} (1 + a(k)*x^k). 6
1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 0, 1, 14, 1, -4, 1, -8, 1, -16, 1, 196, 1, -54, 1, -92, 1, -184, 1, 144, 1, -628, 1, -1040, 1, -2160, 1, 41102, 1, -7708, 1, -12932, 1, -27592, 1, 54020, 1, -98496, 1, -173720, 1, -364720, 1, 853624, 1, -1341970, 1, -2383916, 1, -4918536, 1 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

This is the PPE (power product expansion) of A000041.

When n is odd, a(n) = 1.

When n is even, a(n) = 2, 4, 0, 14, -4, -8, -16, 196, -54, -92, -184, 144, -628, -1040, -2160, 41102, ...

Alkauskas (2016, Problem 3, p. 3) conjectured that a(8*k+2), a(8*k+4), and a(8*k+6) are all negative, and a(8*k) is positive for k >= 1. [This statement is not wholly true for k = 0.] - Petros Hadjicostas, Oct 07 2019

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..55.

Giedrius Alkauskas, One curious proof of Fermat's little theorem, arXiv:0801.0805 [math.NT], 2008.

Giedrius Alkauskas, A curious proof of Fermat's little theorem, Amer. Math. Monthly 116(4) (2009), 362-364.

Giedrius Alkauskas, Algebraic functions with Fermat property, eigenvalues of transfer operator and Riemann zeros, and other open problems, arXiv:1609.09842 [math.NT], 2016.

H. Gingold, H. W. Gould, and Michael E. Mays, Power Product Expansions, Utilitas Mathematica 34 (1988), 143-161.

H. Gingold and A. Knopfmacher, Analytic properties of power product expansions, Canadian Journal of Mathematics 47(6) (1995), 1219-1239.

W. Lang, Recurrences for the general problem.

FORMULA

From Petros Hadjicostas, Oct 04 2019: (Start)

Define (A(m,n): n,m >= 1) by A(m=1,n) = p(n) = A000041(n) for n >= 1, A(m,n) = 0 for m > n >= 1 (upper triangular), and A(m,n) = A(m-1,n) - A(m-1,m-1) * A(m,n-m+1) for n >= m >= 2. Then a(n) = A(n,n). [Theorem 3 in Gingold et al. (1988).]

a(n) = Sum_{s|n} s/n + Sum_{s|n, s > 1} (-a(n/s))^s/s. [Eq. (1) in Alkauskas (2008, 2009).]

(End)

MATHEMATICA

terms = 55; sol[0] = {};

sol[m_] := sol[m] = Join[sol[m - 1], If[OddQ[m], {a[m] -> 1}, First @ Solve[Thread[Table[PartitionsP[n], {n, 0, m}] == CoefficientList[ (Product[1 + a[n]*x^n, {n, 1, m}] /. sol[m - 1]) + O[x]^(m + 1), x]]]]];

Array[a, terms] /. sol[terms] (* Jean-François Alcover, Dec 06 2018, corrected Oct 03 2019 *)

(* Second program: *)

A[m_, n_] := A[m, n] = Which[m == 1, PartitionsP[n], m > n >= 1, 0, True, A[m - 1, n] - A[m - 1, m - 1]*A[m, n - m + 1] ];

a[n_] := A[n, n];

a /@ Range[1, 55] (* Jean-François Alcover, Oct 03 2019, using the formula given by Petros Hadjicostas *)

PROG

(PARI) a(m) = {default(seriesprecision, m+1); ak = vector(m); pol = 1 / eta(x + x * O(x^m)); ak[1] = polcoeff(pol, 1); for (k=2, m, pol = taylor(pol / (1+ak[k-1]*x^(k-1)), x); ak[k] = polcoeff(pol, k, x); ); for (k=1, m, print1(ak[k], ", "); ); }

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000041, A147541, A170908, A170909, A170910, A170911, A170912, A170913, A170914, A170915, A170916, A170917, A220418, A290261.

Sequence in context: A140505 A295881 A117971 * A190616 A238018 A131642

Adjacent sequences:  A220417 A220418 A220419 * A220421 A220422 A220423

KEYWORD

sign,changed

AUTHOR

Michel Marcus, Dec 14 2012

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 20 04:37 EDT 2019. Contains 328247 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)