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A219965 Number of non-intersecting unit cubes regularly packed into the tetrahedron of edge length n. 1
0, 0, 0, 1, 4, 10, 19, 30, 45, 66, 94, 130, 172, 221, 278, 344, 422, 511, 611, 723, 848, 987, 1140, 1308, 1491, 1691, 1909, 2146, 2401, 2673, 2965, 3278, 3614, 3974, 4355, 4759, 5186, 5638, 6117, 6623, 7156, 7716, 8305, 8923, 9571, 10249, 10958, 11700, 12475, 13285, 14127, 15003, 15914, 16862, 17849, 18874, 19937, 21037, 22177, 23358, 24581, 25846, 27153, 28504 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,5

COMMENTS

The tetrahedron may be aligned with the Cartesian axes by putting its triangular basis on the horizontal plane, with four vertices at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 0), (n, 0, 0),  (n/2, sqrt(3)*n/2, 0) and (n/2, n/(2*sqrt(3)), n*sqrt(2/3)) see A194082, A020769, A157697.

The volume of tetrahedron is a third times the area of the base triangle times height, (1/3) * (sqrt(3)*n^2/4) * n*sqrt(2/3) = n^3/(3*2^(2/3) = A020829*n^3. This defines an obvious upper limit of floor(n^3/sqrt(72)) = A171973(n) of placing unit cubes into this tetrahedron.

Regular packing: We place the first layer of unit cubes so they touch the floor of the tetrahedron. Their number is limited by the area of the triangular horizontal section of the plane z=1 inside the tetrahedron, which touches all of them; this isosceles horizontal triangle has edge length E(n,z) = n-z*sqrt(3/2). This edge length is a linear interpolation for triangular horizontal cuts between z=0 at the bottom and the summit of the tetrahedron at z=n*sqrt(2/3).

This first layer confined by a triangle characterized by E(n,z) may host RegSquInTri(E) := sum_{y=1..floor(E*sqrt(3)/2)} floor(E-y*2/sqrt(3)) cubes, following recursively the same regular placement and counting strategy as for squares in isosceles triangles, see A194082.

The number of unit cubes in the next layer, between z=1 and z=2, is limited by the area of the horizontal section of the triangle z=2 inside the tetrahedron, where the triangle has edge length n-z*sqrt(3/2).

So in layer z=1, 2, ... we insert ReqSquInTri(E(n,z)) cubes. a(n) is the sum over all these layers with z limited by the z-value of the vertex at the summit.

There is a generalization to placing unit cubes of higher dimensions into higher dimensional tetrahedra.

The growth is expected to be roughly equal to the growth of A000292.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..64.

R. J. Mathar, Illustration of 30 cubes at n=8

R. J. Mathar, Illustration of 66 cubes at n=10

R. J. Mathar, Illustration of 221 cubes at n=14

FORMULA

a(n) <= A171973(n).

MAPLE

# Number or squares in isosceles triangle of edge length n.

RegSquInTri := proc(n)

        add(floor(n-2*y/sqrt(3)), y=1..floor(n*sqrt(3)/2)) ;

end proc:

A219965 := proc(n)

        local a, z, triedg ;

        a := 0 ;

        for z from 1 to floor(n*sqrt(2/3)) do

                triedg := n-z*sqrt(3/2) ;

                a := a+ RegSquInTri(triedg) ;

        end do:

        return a;

end proc:

CROSSREFS

Sequence in context: A022785 A241239 A057312 * A008038 A301248 A160425

Adjacent sequences:  A219962 A219963 A219964 * A219966 A219967 A219968

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

R. J. Mathar, Dec 02 2012

STATUS

approved

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Last modified June 1 04:57 EDT 2020. Contains 334758 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)