

A218272


Infinitesimal generator for transpose of the Pascal matrix A007318 (as upper triangular matrices).


10



0, 1, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 11, 0, 0, 0
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OFFSET

0,5


COMMENTS

T is the transpose of A132440.
Let M(t) = exp(t*T) = limit [1 + t*T/n]^n as n tends to infinity.
Then M(1) = the transpose of the lower triangular Pascal matrix A007318, with inverse M(1).
Given a polynomial sequence p_n(x) with p_0(x)=1 and the lowering and raising operators L and R defined by L P_n(x) = n * P_(n1)(x) and
R P_n(x) = P_(n+1)(x), the matrix T represents the action of L in the p_n(x) basis. For p_n(x) = x^n, L = D = d/dx and R = x. For p_n(x) = x^n/n!, L = DxD and R = D^(1).
See A132440 as an analog and more general discussion.
Sum(n>=0, c_n T^n / n!) = e^(c.T) gives the MaurerCartan form matrix for the one dimensional Leibniz group defined by multiplication of a Taylor series by the formal Taylor series e^(c.x) (cf. Olver).  Tom Copeland, Nov 05 2015
From Tom Copeland, Jul 02 2018: (Start)
The transpose Psc^Trn of the lower triangular Pascal matrix Psc = A007318 gives the numerical coefficients of the MaurerCartan form matrix M of the Leibniz group Leibniz(n)(1,1) presented on p. 9 of the Olver paper. M = exp[c. * T] with (c.)^n = c_n and T the Lie infinitesimal generator of this entry. The columns e^T are the rows of the Pascal matrix A007318.
M can be obtained by multiplying each nth column vector of Psc by c_n and then transposing the result; i.e., with the diagonal matrix H = Diag(c_0, c_1, c_2, ...), M = (Psc * H)^Trn = H * Psc^Trn.
M is a matrix representation of the differential operator S = e^{c.*D} with D = d/dx, which acting on x^m gives the Appell polynomial p_m(x) = (c. + x)^m, with (c.)^k = c_k an arbitrary indeterminate except for c_0 = 1. For example, S x^2 = (c. + x)^2 = c_0*x^2 + 2*c_1*x + c_2, and M * (0,0,1,0,0, ...)^Trn = (c_2,2*c_1,c_0,0,0,...)^Trn = V, so V^Trn = (0,0,1,0,...) * M^Trn = (0,0,1,0,...) * Psc * H = (c_2,2*c_1,c_0,0,...).
The differential lowering and raising operators for the Appell sequence are given by L = D and R = x + dlog(S)/dD, with L p_n(x = n * p_(n1)(x) and R p_n(x) = p_(n+1)(x).
(End)


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..79.
Tom Copeland, Infinitesimal Generators, the Pascal Pyramid, and the Witt and Virasoro Algebras
P. Olver, The canonical contact form.


FORMULA

The matrix operation b = T*a can be characterized in several ways in terms of the coefficients a(n) and b(n), their o.g.f.s A(x) and B(x), or e.g.f.s EA(x) and EB(x):
1) b(n) = (n+1) * a(n+1),
2) B(x) = D A(x), or
3) EB(x) = DxD EA(x),
where D is the derivative w.r.t. x.
So the exponentiated operator can be characterized as
4) exp(t*T) A(x) = exp(t*D) A(x) = A(x+t),
5) exp(t*T) EA(x) = exp(t*DxD) EA(x) = exp[x*a/(1+t*a)]/(1+t*a),
= Sum_{n>=0} (1+t*a)^(n1) (x*a)^n/n!, where umbrally
a^n *(1+t*a)^(n1) = Sum_{j>0} binomial(n+j,j)a(n+j)t^j,
6) exp(t*T) EA(x) = Sum_{n>=0} a(n) t^n Lag(n,x/t),
where Lag(n,x) are the Laguerre polynomials (A021009), or
7) [exp(t*T) * a]_n = [M(t) * a]_n
= Sum_{j>=0} binomial(n+j,j)a(n+j)t^j.
For more on the operator DxD, see A021009 and references in A132440.


EXAMPLE

Matrix T begins
0,1;
0,0,2;
0,0,0,3;
0,0,0,0,4;
0,0,0,0,0,5;
0,0,0,0,0,0,6;
...


MATHEMATICA

Table[PadLeft[{n+1}, n+2], {n, 0, 11}] // Flatten (* JeanFrançois Alcover, Apr 30 2014 *)


CROSSREFS

Cf. A134402.
Sequence in context: A232747 A130460 A132440 * A134402 A174712 A127647
Adjacent sequences: A218269 A218270 A218271 * A218273 A218274 A218275


KEYWORD

nonn,easy,tabf


AUTHOR

Tom Copeland, Oct 24 2012


STATUS

approved



