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A212619 Sum of the distances between all unordered pairs of vertices of degree 3 in the rooted tree with Matula-Goebel number n. 11
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 3, 0 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,49

COMMENTS

The Matula-Goebel number of a rooted tree can be defined in the following recursive manner: to the one-vertex tree there corresponds the number 1; to a tree T with root degree 1 there corresponds the t-th prime number, where t is the Matula-Goebel number of the tree obtained from T by deleting the edge emanating from the root; to a tree T with root degree m>=2 there corresponds the product of the Matula-Goebel numbers of the m branches of T.

REFERENCES

F. Goebel, On a 1-1 correspondence between rooted trees and natural numbers, J. Combin. Theory, B 29 (1980), 141-143.

I. Gutman and A. Ivic, On Matula numbers, Discrete Math., 150, 1996, 131-142.

I. Gutman and Y-N. Yeh, Deducing properties of trees from their Matula numbers, Publ. Inst. Math., 53 (67), 1993, 17-22.

D. W. Matula, A natural rooted tree enumeration by prime factorization, SIAM Review, 10, 1968, 273.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..120.

A. Ilic and M. Ilic, Generalizations of Wiener polarity index and terminal Wiener index, arXiv:11106.2986.

E. Deutsch, Rooted tree statistics from Matula numbers, arXiv:1111.4288.

Index entries for sequences related to Matula-Goebel numbers

FORMULA

We give recurrence formulas for the more general case of vertices of degree k (k>=2). Let bigomega(n) denote the number of prime divisors of n, counted with multiplicities. Let g(n)=g(n,k,x) be the generating polynomial of the vertices of degree k of the rooted tree with Matula-Goebel number n with respect to level. We have a(1)=0; if n = p(t) (=the t-th prime) and bigomega(t) = k-1 then a(n) = a(t) +[dg(t)/dx]_{x=1}; if n = p(t) (=the t-th prime) and bigomega(t) =k, then a(n) = a(t) - [dg(t)/dx]_{x=1}; if n = p(t) (=the t-th prime) and bigomega(t) =/ k and =/ k-1, then a(n) = a(t); if n = rs with r prime, s>=2, bigomega(s) =k-1, then a(n) = a(r) + a(s) + [d[g(r)g(s)]/dx]_{x=1} +[dg(r)/dx]_{x=1} +[dg(s)/dx]_{x=1}; if n = rs with r prime, s>=2, bigomega(s) =k, then a(n) = a(r) + a(s) + [d[g(r)g(s)]/dx]_{x=1} - [dg(r)/dx]_{x=1} - [dg(s)/dx]_{x=1}; if n = rs with r prime, s>=2, bigomega(s) =/ k-1 and =/ k, then a(n) = a(r) + a(s) + [d[g(r)g(s)]/dx]_{x=1}.

EXAMPLE

a(28)=1 because the rooted tree with Matula-Goebel number 28 is obtained by joining the trees I, I, and Y at  their roots; it has 2 vertices of degree 3 (the root and the center of Y), the distance between them is 1.

a(987654321) = 22, as given by the Maple program; the reader can verify this on the rooted tree of Fig. 2 of the Deutsch reference.

MAPLE

k := 3: with(numtheory): g := proc (n) local r, s: r := proc (n) options operator, arrow: op(1, factorset(n)) end proc: s := proc (n) options operator, arrow: n/r(n) end proc: if n = 1 then 0 elif bigomega(n) = 1 and bigomega(pi(n)) = k-1 then sort(expand(x+x*g(pi(n)))) elif bigomega(n) = 1 and bigomega(pi(n)) = k then sort(expand(-x+x*g(pi(n)))) elif bigomega(n) = 1 and bigomega(pi(n)) <> k-1 and bigomega(pi(n)) <> k then sort(expand(x*g(pi(n)))) elif bigomega(s(n)) = k-1 then sort(expand(1+g(r(n))+g(s(n)))) elif bigomega(s(n)) = k then sort(expand(-1+g(r(n))+g(s(n)))) else sort(g(r(n))+g(s(n))) end if end proc; with(numtheory): a := proc (n) local r, s: r := proc (n) options operator, arrow: op(1, factorset(n)) end proc: s := proc (n) options operator, arrow: n/r(n) end proc: if n = 1 then 0 elif bigomega(n) = 1 and bigomega(pi(n)) = k-1 then a(pi(n))+subs(x = 1, diff(g(pi(n)), x)) elif bigomega(n) = 1 and bigomega(pi(n)) = k then a(pi(n))-subs(x = 1, diff(g(pi(n)), x)) elif bigomega(n) = 1 and bigomega(pi(n)) <> k and bigomega(pi(n)) <> k-1 then a(pi(n)) elif bigomega(s(n)) = k-1 then a(r(n))+a(s(n))+subs(x = 1, diff(g(r(n))*g(s(n)), x))+subs(x = 1, diff(g(r(n)), x))+subs(x = 1, diff(g(s(n)), x)) elif bigomega(s(n)) = k then a(r(n))+a(s(n))+subs(x = 1, diff(g(r(n))*g(s(n)), x))-subs(x = 1, diff(g(r(n)), x))-subs(x = 1, diff(g(s(n)), x)) else a(r(n))+a(s(n))+subs(x = 1, diff(g(r(n))*g(s(n)), x)) end if end proc: seq(a(n), n = 1 .. 120);

CROSSREFS

Cf. A206499, A212618, A212620, A212621, A212622, A212623, A212624, A212625, A212626, A212627, A212628, A212629, A212630, A212631, A212632.

Sequence in context: A086260 A124505 A025444 * A092575 A065335 A230264

Adjacent sequences:  A212616 A212617 A212618 * A212620 A212621 A212622

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Emeric Deutsch, May 22 2012

STATUS

approved

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Last modified January 22 15:57 EST 2019. Contains 319364 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)