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A187067 Let i be in {1,2,3} and let r >= 0 be an integer. Let p = {p_1, p_2, p_3} = {-2,0,1}, n = 2*r + p_i and define a(-2)=0. Then, a(n) = a(2*r + p_i) gives the quantity of H_(7,3,0) tiles in a subdivided H_(7,i,r) tile after linear scaling by the factor x^r, where x = sqrt(2*cos(Pi/7)). 5
0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 14, 19, 28, 33, 47, 61, 89, 108, 155, 197, 286, 352, 507, 638, 924, 1145, 1652, 2069, 2993, 3721, 5373, 6714, 9707, 12087, 17460, 21794, 31501, 39254, 56714, 70755, 102256 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,6

COMMENTS

Theory. (Start)

1. Definitions. Let T_(7,j,0) denote the rhombus with sides of unit length (=1), interior angles given by the pair (j*Pi/7,(7-j)*Pi/7) and Area(T_(7,j,0)) = sin(j*Pi/7), j in {1,2,3}. Associated with T_(7,j,0) are its angle coefficients (j, 7-j) in which one coefficient is even while the other is odd. A half-tile is created by cutting T_(7,j,0) along a line extending between its two corners with even angle coefficient; let H_(7,j,0) denote this half-tile. Similarly, a T_(7,j,r) tile is a linearly scaled version of T_(7,j,0) with sides of length x^r and Area(T_(7,j,r)) = x^(2*r)*sin(j*Pi/7), r>=0 an integer, where x is the positive, constant square root x = sqrt(2*cos(j*Pi/7)); likewise let H_(7,j,r) denote the corresponding half-tile. Often H_(7,i,r) (i in {1,2,3}) can be subdivided into an integral number of each equivalence class H_(7,j,0). But regardless of whether or not H_(7,j,r) subdivides, in theory such a proposed subdivision for each j can be represented by the matrix M=(m_(i,j)), i,j=1,2,3, in which the entry m_(i,j) gives the quantity of H_(7,j,0) tiles that should be present in a subdivided H_(7,i,r) tile. The number x^(2*r) (the square of the scaling factor) is an eigenvalue of M=(U_1)^r, where

U_1=

(0 1 0)

(1 0 1)

(0 1 1).

2. The sequence. Let r>=0, and let C_r be the r-th "block" defined by C_r = {a(2*r-2), a(2*r), a(2*r+1)}. Note that C_r - C_(r-1) - 2*C_(r-2) + C_(r-3) = {0,0,0}, with C_0 = {a(-2),a(0),a(1)} = {0,0,1}. Let n = 2*r + p_i. Then a(n) = a(2*r + p_i) = m_(i,3), where M = (m_(i,j)) = (U_1)^r was defined above. Hence the block C_r corresponds component-wise to the third column of M, and a(n) = m_(i,3) gives the quantity of H_(7,3,0) tiles that should appear in a subdivided H_(7,i,r) tile. (End)

Combining blocks A_r, B_r and C_r, from A187065, A187066 and this sequence, respectively, as matrix columns [A_r, B_r, C_r] generates the matrix (U_1)^r, and a negative index (-1)*r yields the corresponding inverse [A_(-r), B_(-r), C_(-r)] = (U_1)^(-r) of (U_1)^r. Therefore, the three sequences need not be causal.

Since a(2*r-2) = a(2*(r-1)) for all r, this sequence arises by concatenation of third-column entries m_(2,3) and m_(3,3) from successive matrices M = (U_1)^r.

a(2*n) = A006053(n+1), a(2*n+1) = A028495(n).

LINKS

Matthew House, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..7784

L. E. Jeffery, Unit-primitive matrices

R. Witula, D. Slota and A. Warzynski, Quasi-Fibonacci Numbers of the Seventh Order, J. Integer Seq., 9 (2006), Article 06.4.3.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (0,1,0,2,0,-1).

FORMULA

Recurrence: a(n) = a(n-2) + 2*a(n-4) - a(n-6).

G.f.: x(1 + x - x^4)/(1 - x^2 - 2*x^4 + x^6).

Closed-form: a(n) = -(1/14)*((X_1 + Y_1*(-1)^(n-1))*((w_2)^2 - (w_3)^2)*(w_1)^(n-1) + (X_2 + Y_2*(-1)^(n-1))*((w_3)^2 - (w_1)^2)*(w_2)^(n-1) + (X_3 + Y_3*(-1)^(n-1))*((w_1)^2 - (w_2)^2)*(w_3)^(n-1)), where w_k = sqrt(2*(-1)^(k-1)*cos(k*Pi/7)), X_k = (w_k)^4 + (w_k)^3 - 1 and Y_k = (w_k)^4 - (w_k)^3 - 1, k=1,2,3.

For n>1, a(2n) = a(2n-1) + a(2n-4), a(2n+1) = a(2n-1) + a(2n-2). - Franklin T. Adams-Watters, Jan 06 2014

EXAMPLE

Suppose r=3. Then

C_r = C_3 = {a(2*r-2, a(2*r), a(2*r+1)} = {a(4), a(6), a(7)} = {1,3,3},

corresponding to the entries in the third column of

M = (U_2)^3 =

(0 2 1)

(2 1 3)

(1 3 3).

Choose i=2 and set n = 2*r + p_i. Then a(n) = a(2*r + p_i) = a(6+0) = a(6) = 3, which equals the entry in row 2 and column 3 of M. Hence a subdivided H_(7,2,3) tile should contain a(6) = m_(2,3) = 3 H_(7,3,0) tiles.

CROSSREFS

Cf. A187065, A187066, A187068, A187069, A187070.

Sequence in context: A155118 A091275 A046936 * A017831 A132289 A078467

Adjacent sequences:  A187064 A187065 A187066 * A187068 A187069 A187070

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

L. Edson Jeffery, Mar 09 2011

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 17 08:36 EDT 2019. Contains 328107 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)