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A186783 Diameter of the symmetric group S_n when generated by the transposition (1,2) and both left and right rotations by (1,2,...,n) 1
0, 1, 2, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36, 45, 55, 66 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,3

COMMENTS

Given an ordered sequence of n elements (1,2,3,...,n), let X represent the permutation that transposes the first two elements, X(1,2,3,...,n) = (2,1,3,...,n), let L be the "left rotation" of the sequence, L(1,2,3,...,n) = (2,3,...,n,1), and let R be the "right rotation", R(1,2,3,...,n) = (n,1,2,...,n-1). Then every permutation of (1,2,3,...,n) can be expressed as a composition of the permutations X, L and R. One can exhaustively generate such compositions by taking L="0", X="1", R="2", and considering, in turn, base 3 numbers of increasing length (padded with leading zeros).  Note that any base 3 number containing the subsequence "11", "02" or "20" may be discarded.

Note also that by defining the distance between any two permutations p and q in S_n, dist(p,q), to be the length of the minimal composition of LXR transforming p into q, we have dist(p,q) = dist(q,p), owing to L and R being mutually inverse, and X being self-inverse.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..12.

FORMULA

Conjecture: a(n) = - sum_{k=1..n-1} StirlingS1(n+k-1, (n-1)*k). This formula holds for all known n. - Arkadiusz Wesolowski, Mar 30 2013

EXAMPLE

The diameter of S_5 is 10, given this set of generators, since there is no sequence shorter than 0010010121 (i.e., LLXLLXLXRX) that will transform (1,2,3,4,5) into (2,1,5,4,3), and there is no permutation of (1,2,3,4,5) that requires more than a length-10 composition of L, X, and R. Thus a(5) = 10.

PROG

(Sage) def a(n): return PermutationGroup([[(1, 2)], [tuple(1..n)], PermutationGroupElement([tuple(1..n)])^(-1)]).cayley_graph().diameter() # Max Alekseyev

CROSSREFS

Cf. A039745, A186752

Sequence in context: A285959 A276211 A190091 * A133931 A050895 A184426

Adjacent sequences:  A186780 A186781 A186782 * A186784 A186785 A186786

KEYWORD

nonn,more,hard

AUTHOR

Tony Bartoletti, Feb 26 2011

EXTENSIONS

a(8)=28 added by Tony Bartoletti, Mar 12 2011

a(9)=36 added by R. H. Hardin, Sep 09 2011

a(10)=45 added by Sharon Li, Mar 09 2013

a(11)=55 and a(12)=66 added by James Bieron, Mar 15 2013

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 26 12:21 EDT 2017. Contains 287095 sequences.