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A180662 The Golden Triangle: T(n,k) = A001654(k) for n>=0 and 0<=k<=n. 142
0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 6, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40, 104, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40, 104, 273, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40, 104, 273, 714, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40, 104, 273, 714, 1870, 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40, 104, 273, 714, 1870, 4895 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,6

COMMENTS

The terms in the n-th row of the Golden Triangle are the first (n+1) golden rectangle numbers. The golden rectangle numbers are A001654(n)=F(n)*F(n+1), with F(n) the Fibonacci numbers. The mirror image of the Golden Triangle is A180663.

We define below 24 mostly new triangle sums. The Row1 and Row2 sums are the ordinary and alternating row sums respectively and the Kn11 and Kn12 sums are commonly known as antidiagonal sums. Each of the names of these sums, except for the row sums, comes from a (fairy) chess piece that moves in its own peculiar way over a chessboard, see Hooper and Whyld. All pieces are leapers: knight (sqrt(5) or 1,2), fil (sqrt(8) or 2,2), camel (sqrt(10) or 3,1), giraffe (sqrt(17) or 4,1) and zebra (sqrt(13) or 3,2). Information about the origin of these chess sums can be found in "Famous numbers on a chessboard", see Meijer.

Each triangle or chess sum formula adds up numbers on a chessboard using the moves of its namesake. Converting a number triangle to a square array of numbers shows this most clearly (use the table button!). The formulas given below are for number triangles.

The chess sums of the Golden Triangle lead to six different sequences, see the crossrefs. As could be expected all these sums are related to the golden rectangle numbers.

Some triangles with complete sets of triangle sums are: A002260 (Natural Numbers), A007318 (Pascal), A008288 (Delannoy) A013609 (Pell-Jacobsthal), A036561 (Nicomachus), A104763 (Fibonacci(n)), A158405 (Odd Numbers) and of course A180662 (Golden Triangle).

#..Name....Type.Code..Definition of triangle sums.

1..Row......1...Row1..a(n)=add(T(n,k),k=0..n).

2..Row Alt..2...Row2..a(n)=add((-1)^(n+k)*T(n,k),k=0..n).

3..Knight...1...Kn11..a(n)=add(T(n-k,k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

4..Knight...1...Kn12..a(n)=add(T(n-k+1,k+1),k=0..floor(n/2)).

5..Knight...1...Kn13..a(n)=add(T(n-k+2,k+2),k=0..floor(n/2)).

6..Knight...2...Kn21..a(n)=add(T(n-k,n-2*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

7..Knight...2...Kn22..a(n)=add(T(n-k+1,n-2*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

8..Knight...2...Kn23..a(n)=add(T(n-k+2,n-2*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

9..Knight...3...Kn3...a(n)=add(T(n+k,2*k),k=0..n).

10.Knight...4...Kn4...a(n)=add(T(n+k,n-k),k=0..n).

11.Fil......1...Fi1...a(n)=add(T(n,2*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

12.Fil......2...Fi2...a(n)=add(T(n,n-2*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

13.Camel....1...Ca1...a(n)=add(T(n-2*k,k),k=0..floor(n/3)).

14.Camel....2...Ca2...a(n)=add(T(n-2*k,n-3*k),k=0..floor(n/3)).

15.Camel....3...Ca3...a(n)=add(T(n+2*k,3*k),k=0..n).

16.Camel....4...Ca4...a(n)=add(T(n+2*k,n-k),k=0..n).

17.Giraffe..1...Gi1...a(n)=add(T(n-3*k,k),k=0..floor(n/4)).

18.Giraffe..2...Gi2...a(n)=add(T(n-3*k,n-4*k),k=0..floor(n/4)).

19.Giraffe..3...Gi3...a(n)=add(T(n+3*k,4*k),k=0..n).

20.Giraffe..4...Gi4...a(n)=add(T(n+3*k,n-k),k=0..n).

21.Zebra....1...Ze1...a(n)=add(T(n+k,3*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

22.Zebra....2...Ze2...a(n)=add(T(n+k,n-2*k),k=0..floor(n/2)).

23.Zebra....3...Ze3...a(n)=add(T(n-k,2*k),k=0..floor(n/3)).

24.Zebra....4...Ze4...a(n)=add(T(n-k, n-3*k),k=0..floor(n/3)).

REFERENCES

David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess, p. 221, 1992.

LINKS

Reinhard Zumkeller, Rows n = 0..120 of triangle, flattened

Verner E. Hoggatt, Jr., A new angle on Pascal’s triangle, The Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 6, Number 4, pp. 228-230, Oct. 1968.

Edouard Lucas, Recherches sur plusieurs ouvrages de Léonard de Pise, Ch. 1, pp. 12-14, 1877.

J. W. Meijer, Famous numbers on a chessboard, Acta Nova, Volume 4, No.4, December 2010. pp. 589-598. [Broken link]

J. W. Meijer, Illustrations of the triangle sums, Mar 07 2013.

S. Northshield, Sums across Pascal's triangle modulo 2, Congressus Numerantium, 200, pp. 35-52, 2010. [Broken link]

FORMULA

T(n,k) = F(k)*F(k+1) with F(n) = A000045(n), for n>=0 and 0<=k<=n.

From Johannes W. Meijer, Jun 22 2015: (Start)

Kn1p(n) = add(T(n-k+p-1, k+p-1), k=0..floor(n/2)), p >= 1.

Kn1p(n) = Kn11(n+2*p-2) - add(T(n-k+2*p-2, k), k=0..p-2), p >= 2.

Kn2p(n) = add(T(n-k+p-1, n-2*k), k=0..floor(n/2)), p >= 1.

Kn2p(n) = Kn21(n+2*p-2) - add(T(n+k+p, n+2*k+2), k=0..p-2), p >= 2. (End)

G.f. as triangle: xy/((1-x)(1+xy)(1-3xy+x^2 y^2)). - Robert Israel, Sep 06 2015

EXAMPLE

The first few rows of the Golden Triangle are:

0;

0, 1;

0, 1, 2;

0, 1, 2, 6;

0, 1, 2, 6, 15;

0, 1, 2, 6, 15, 40;

MAPLE

F:= combinat[fibonacci]:

T:= (n, k)-> F(k)*F(k+1):

seq(seq(T(n, k), k=0..n), n=0..10); # revised Johannes W. Meijer, Sep 13 2012

MATHEMATICA

Table[Times @@ Fibonacci@ {k, k + 1}, {n, 0, 10}, {k, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Michael De Vlieger, Aug 18 2016 *)

PROG

(Haskell)

import Data.List (inits)

a180662 n k = a180662_tabl !! n !! k

a180662_row n = a180662_tabl !! n

a180662_tabl = tail $ inits a001654_list

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Jun 08 2013

(PARI) T(n, k)=fibonacci(k)*fibonacci(k+1) \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Nov 07 2016

CROSSREFS

Cf. A180663 (Mirror), A001654 (Golden Rectangle), A000045 (F(n)).

Triangle sums: A064831 (Row1, Kn11, Kn12, Kn4, Ca1, Ca4, Gi1, Gi4), A077916 (Row2), A180664 (Kn13), A180665 (Kn21, Kn22, Kn23, Fi2, Ze2), A180665(2*n) (Kn3, Fi1, Ze3), A115730(n+1) (Ca2, Ze4), A115730(3*n+1) (Ca3, Ze1), A180666 (Gi2), A180666(4*n) (Gi3).

Sequence in context: A006667 A112570 A127755 * A260663 A241857 A014511

Adjacent sequences:  A180659 A180660 A180661 * A180663 A180664 A180665

KEYWORD

easy,nonn,tabl

AUTHOR

Johannes W. Meijer, Sep 21 2010

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 23 16:52 EDT 2017. Contains 286925 sequences.