

A180568


Triangle read by rows: T(n,k) is the number of unordered pairs of nodes at distance k in the grid P_3 x P_n (1<=k<=n), where P_j denotes the path graph on j nodes.


1



2, 1, 7, 6, 2, 12, 14, 8, 2, 17, 22, 17, 8, 2, 22, 30, 26, 17, 8, 2, 27, 38, 35, 26, 17, 8, 2, 32, 46, 44, 35, 26, 17, 8, 2, 37, 54, 53, 44, 35, 26, 17, 8, 2, 42, 62, 62, 53, 44, 35, 26, 17, 8, 2, 47, 70, 71, 62, 53, 44, 35, 26, 17, 8, 2, 52, 78, 80, 71, 62, 53, 44, 35, 26, 17, 8, 2, 57
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OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

Row n contains n+1 entries.
Sum of entries in row n = (3/2)n(3n1)=A062741(n).
The entries in row n are the coefficients of the Wiener polynomial of the grid P_3 x P_n.
Sum(k*T(n,k),k=1..n+1)=(1/2)n(n+3)(3n1)=A180569(n) = the Wiener index of the grid P_3 x P_n.
The average of all distances in the grid P_3 x P_n is (n+3)/3.


REFERENCES

B. E. Sagan, YN. Yeh and P. Zhang, The Wiener Polynomial of a Graph, Internat. J. of Quantum Chem., 60, 1996, 959969.


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..78.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Grid Graph.


FORMULA

The row generating polynomials p(n)=p(n,t) satisfy the recurrence relation p(n)=p(n1)=2t+t^2+t(3+4t+2t^2)*sum(t^j,j=0..n2) (these are the Wiener polynomials of the corresponding graphs).
The generating polynomial of row n is p(n; t)=[t^{n+1}*(3+4t+2t^2)+(5n3)t2(n+2)t^22(n+1)t^3nt^4]/(1t)^2.
G.f. = G(t,z)=Sum(T(n,k)*t^k*z^n, k>=1, n>=1) = tz(zt^2+2tz+t+3z+2)/[(1tz)(1z)^2].


EXAMPLE

T(1,1)=2, T(1,2)=1 because in P_3 x P_1 = P_3 there are 2 pairs of nodes at distance 1 and one pair at distance 2.
Triangle starts:
2,1;
7,6,2;
12,14,8,2;
17,22,17,8,2;


MAPLE

p := proc (n) options operator, arrow: (t^(n+1)*(3+4*t+2*t^2)+(5*n3)*t(2*n+4)*t^2(2*n+2)*t^3n*t^4)/(1t)^2 end proc: for n to 12 do f[n] := sort(expand(simplify(p(n)))) end do: for n to 12 do seq(coeff(f[n], t, k), k = 1 .. n+1) end do; # yields sequence in triangular form


CROSSREFS

Cf. A180569
Sequence in context: A135895 A039814 A178120 * A248950 A078301 A160201
Adjacent sequences: A180565 A180566 A180567 * A180569 A180570 A180571


KEYWORD

nonn,tabf


AUTHOR

Emeric Deutsch, Sep 28 2010


STATUS

approved



