The ages of the 23 generations from Adam to Joseph as described in the book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible: Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abraham, Isaac, Israel (Jacob), and Joseph.
From Jon E. Schoenfield, Nov 30 2017: (Start)
a(n) is the age at death in years, except for the anomalous value for Enoch (Genesis 5:23-24, Hebrews 11:5) at n=7. (Numeric values are taken from the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible; the Septuagint gives different values.) Chapters 5 and 11 of Genesis cover the genealogy from Adam to Noah and from Noah's son Shem through Abram (Abraham), respectively. (The ages at which Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph died are given in Genesis 25:7, 35:28, 47:28, and 50:26, respectively.)
The use of the offset value 1 is consistent with Hebrew inclusive counting; in the New Testament, Enoch is referred to as "the seventh from Adam" (Jude 1:14) -- not meaning seven generations after Adam, but the seventh generation with Adam included as the first.
The ages at which each person in the list became the father of the next, together with their ages at death, yield extensive overlap of their lifespans (see the bar graph at the 1st Brown link); e.g., Adam (n=1) was still living at the birth of Methuselah (n=8), who was still living at the birth of Shem (n=11), who was still living at the birth of Isaac (n=21).
It has been noted (e.g., see the plot at the 2nd Brown link) that the ages at death through the first 10 generations are on the order of 900 years, but they begin to decrease abruptly thereafter, falling roughly along an exponential decay curve. (End)