

A146161


a(n) is the number of n X n matrices with entries in {1,2,3} such that all adjacent entries (in the same row or column) differ by 1 or 1.


1



3, 8, 48, 512, 12288, 524288, 50331648, 8589934592, 3298534883328, 2251799813685248, 3458764513820540928, 9444732965739290427392, 58028439341502200385896448, 633825300114114700748351602688
(list;
graph;
refs;
listen;
history;
text;
internal format)



OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

Let G(n) be the graph whose vertices are sequences of length n with entries in {1,2,3} for which adjacent terms differ by +1 and {s,t} is an edge if the ith term of sequence s differs from the ith term of sequence t by +1. Let A be the adjacency matrix of this graph. Then a(n) is the sum of the entries in A^(n1). That is, a(n) is the number of paths of length n1 in the graph G(n). Conjecture: a(n) = 2^A097063(n) for n even and 2*2^A097063(n) if n is odd.
Proof that a(n) = 2^A097063(n) for n even and 2*2^A097063(n) if n is odd, by Max Alekseyev: Suppose that elements of the n X n matrix are colored in black and white like a chessboard. Then either all black or all white elements must equal 2. Each element of the other color can be 1 or 3 independently. For even n, the number of black and white elements is the same and equal n/2. For odd n, the number of black/white squares differs by 1. Therefore the number of n X n matrices defined in A146161 is 2*2^(n^2/2)=2^((n^2+2)/2) if n is even, and 2^((n^2+1)/2) + 2^((n^21)/2) = 3*2^((n^21)/2) if n is odd. The explicit formula for A097063 gives A097063(n) = (n^2+2)/2 for even n, and A097063(n) = (n^21)/2 for odd n. So the conjecture is true.


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..14.


FORMULA

a(n) = 2^((n^2+2)/2) if n is even, and 3*2^((n^21)/2) if n is odd.


EXAMPLE

The a(2)=8 2 X 2 matrices with the desired property are {[[1, 2], [2, 1]], [[1, 2], [2, 3]], [[2, 1], [1, 2]], [[2, 1], [3, 2]], [[2, 3], [1, 2]], [[2, 3], [3, 2]], [[3, 2], [2, 1]], [[3, 2], [2, 3]]}. Here a matrix is represented as a list of its rows.


CROSSREFS

Sequence in context: A291504 A034183 A003216 * A304698 A306598 A019015
Adjacent sequences: A146158 A146159 A146160 * A146162 A146163 A146164


KEYWORD

nonn


AUTHOR

W. Edwin Clark, Oct 27 2008


EXTENSIONS

Extended by Max Alekseyev, Mar 23 2009


STATUS

approved



