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A143413 Apéry-like numbers for the constant e: a(n) = 1/(n-1)!*Sum_{k = 0..n+1} (-1)^k*C(n+1,k)*(2*n-k)! for n >= 1. 36
-1, 1, 11, 181, 3539, 81901, 2203319, 67741129, 2346167879, 90449857081, 3843107102339, 178468044946621, 8994348275804891, 488964835817842021, 28523735794360301039, 1777328098986754744081, 117817961601577138782479, 8279178465722546926265329 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

This sequence satisfies the recursion (n-1)^2*a(n) - n^2*a(n-2) = (2*n-1) *(2*n^2 - 2*n+1)*a(n-1), which leads to a rapidly converging series for Napier's constant: e = 2 * Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^n * n^2/(a(n)* a(n-1)).

Notice the striking parallels with the theory of the Apéry numbers A(n) = A005258(n), which satisfy a similar recurrence relation n^2*A(n) - (n-1)^2*A(n-2) = (11*n^2-11*n+3)*A(n-1) and which appear in the series acceleration formula zeta(2) = 5*Sum {n >= 1} 1/(n^2*A(n)*A(n-1)) = 5*[1/(1*3) + 1/(2^2*3*19) + 1/(3^2*19*147) + ...].

LINKS

Seiichi Manyama, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..365

A. van der Poorten, A proof that Euler missed ... Apery's proof of the irrationality of zeta(3). An informal report, Math. Intelligencer 1 (1978/79), no 4, 195-203.

FORMULA

a(0):= -1, a(n) = 1/(n-1)!*sum {k = 0..n+1} (-1)^k*C(n+1,k)*(2*n-k)! for n >= 1.

Apart from the initial term, this sequence is the second superdiagonal of the square array A060475; equivalently, the second subdiagonal of the square array A086764.

Recurrence relation: a(0) = -1, a(1) = 1, (n-1)^2*a(n) - n^2*a(n-2) = (2*n-1)*(2*n^2-2*n+1)*a(n-1), n >= 2.

Let b(n) denote the solution to this recurrence with initial conditions b(0) = 0, b(1) = 2. Then b(n) = A143414(n) = 1/(n-1)!*sum {k = 0..n-1} C(n-1,k)*(2*n-k)!. The rational number b(n)/a(n) is equal to the Padé approximation to exp(x) of degree (n-1,n+1) evaluated at x = 1 and b(n)/a(n) -> e very rapidly.

For example, b(100)/a(100) - e is approximately 1.934 * 10^(-436). The identity b(n)*a(n-1) - b(n-1)*a(n) = (-1)^n *2*n^2 leads to rapidly converging series for e and 1/e: e = 2 * Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^n * n^2/(a(n)*a(n-1)) = 2*[1 + 2^2/(1*11) - 3^2/(11*181) + 4^2/(181*3539) - ...]; 1/e = 1/2 - 2*Sum_{n >= 2} (-1)^n * n^2/(b(n)*b(n-1)) = 1/2 - 2*[2^2/(2*30) - 3^2/(30*492) + 4^2/(492*9620) - ...].

Conjectural congruences: for r >= 0 and odd prime p, calculation suggests that a(p^r*(p+1)) + a(p^r) == 0 (mod p^(r+1)).

MAPLE

with(combinat): a := n -> 1/(n-1)!*add ((-1)^k*binomial(n+1, k)*(2*n-k)!, k = 0..n+1): seq(a(n), n = 1..19);

MATHEMATICA

Join[{-1}, Table[(1/(n-1)!)*Sum[(-1)^k*Binomial[n+1, k]*(2*n-k)!, {k, 0, n+1}], {n, 1, 50}]] (* G. C. Greubel, Oct 24 2017 *)

PROG

(PARI) concat([-1], for(n=1, 25, print1((1/(n-1)!)*sum(k=0, n+1, (-1)^k*binomial(n+1, k)*(2*n-k)!), ", "))) \\ G. C. Greubel, Oct 24 2017

CROSSREFS

Cf. A005258, A060475, A086764, A143414, A143415.

The Apéry-like numbers [or Apéry-like sequences, Apery-like numbers, Apery-like sequences] include A000172, A000984, A002893, A002895, A005258, A005259, A005260, A006077, A036917, A063007, A081085, A093388, A125143 (apart from signs), A143003, A143007, A143413, A143414, A143415, A143583, A183204, A214262, A219692,A226535, A227216, A227454, A229111 (apart from signs), A260667, A260832, A262177, A264541, A264542, A279619, A290575, A290576. (The term "Apery-like" is not well-defined.)

Sequence in context: A036935 A205088 A241193 * A009118 A112943 A258381

Adjacent sequences:  A143410 A143411 A143412 * A143414 A143415 A143416

KEYWORD

easy,sign

AUTHOR

Peter Bala, Aug 14 2008

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 22 20:57 EDT 2018. Contains 316502 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)