

A141419


Triangle read by rows: T(n, k) = A000217(n)  A000217(n  k) with 1 <= k <= n.


16



1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 4, 7, 9, 10, 5, 9, 12, 14, 15, 6, 11, 15, 18, 20, 21, 7, 13, 18, 22, 25, 27, 28, 8, 15, 21, 26, 30, 33, 35, 36, 9, 17, 24, 30, 35, 39, 42, 44, 45, 10, 19, 27, 34, 40, 45, 49, 52, 54, 55
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OFFSET

1,2


COMMENTS

As a rectangle, the accumulation array of A051340.
From Clark Kimberling, Feb 05 2011: (Start)
Here all the weights are divided by two where they aren't in Cahn.
As a rectangle, A141419 is in the accumulation chain
... < A051340 < A141419 < A185874 < A185875 < A185876 < ...
(See A144112 for the definition of accumulation array.)
row 1: A000027
col 1: A000217
diag (1,5,...): A000326 (pentagonal numbers)
diag (2,7,...): A005449 (second pentagonal numbers)
diag (3,9,...): A045943 (triangular matchstick numbers)
diag (4,11,...): A115067
diag (5,13,...): A140090
diag (6,15,...): A140091
diag (7,17,...): A059845
diag (8,19,...): A140672
(End)
Let N=2*n+1 and k=1,2,...,n. Let A_{N,n1} = [0,...,0,1; 0,...,0,1,1; ...; 0,1,...,1; 1,...,1], an n X n unitprimitive matrix (see [Jeffery]). Let M_n=[A_{N,n1}]^4. Then t(n,k)=[M_n]_(1,k), that is, the nth row of the triangle is given by the first row of M_n.  L. Edson Jeffery, Nov 20 2011
Conjecture. Let N=2*n+1 and k=1,...,n. Let A_{N,0}, A_{N,1}, ..., A_{N,n1} be the n X n unitprimitive matrices (again see [Jeffery]) associated with N, and define the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind by the recurrence U_0(x) = 1, U_1(x) = 2*x and U_r(x) = 2*x*U_(r1)(x)  U_(r2)(x) (r>1). Define the column vectors V_(k1) = (U_(k1)(cos(Pi/N)), U_(k1)(cos(3*Pi/N)), ..., U_(k1)(cos((2*n1)*Pi/N)))^T, where T denotes matrix transpose. Let S_N = [V_0, V_1, ..., V_(n1)] be the n X n matrix formed by taking V_(k1) as column k1. Let X_N = [S_N]^T*S_N, and let [X_N]_(i,j) denote the entry in row i and column j of X_N, i,j in {0,...,n1}. Then t(n,k) = [X_N]_(k1,k1), and row n of the triangle is given by the main diagonal entries of X_N. Remarks: Hence t(n,k) is the sum of squares t(n,k) = sum[m=1,...,n (U_(k1)(cos((2*m1)*Pi/N)))^2]. Finally, this sequence is related to A057059, since X_N = [sum_{m=1,...,n} A057059(n,m)*A_{N,m1}] is also an integral linear combination of unitprimitive matrices from the Nth set.  L. Edson Jeffery, Jan 20 2012
Row sums: n*(n+1)*(2*n+1)/6.  L. Edson Jeffery, Jan 25 2013
nth row = partial sums of nth row of A004736.  Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 04 2014
T(n,k) is the number of distinct sums made by at most k elements in {1, 2, ... n}, for 1 <= k <= n, e.g., T(6,2) = the number of distinct sums made by at most 2 elements in {1,2,3,4,5,6}. The sums range from 1, to 5+6=11. So there are 11 distinct sums.  Derek Orr, Nov 26 2014
A number n occurs in this sequence A001227(n) times, the number of odd divisors of n, see A209260.  Hartmut F. W. Hoft, Apr 14 2016
Conjecture: 2*n + 1 is composite if and only if gcd(t(n,m),m) != 1, for some m.  L. Edson Jeffery, Jan 30 2018
From Peter Munn, Aug 21 2019 in respect of the sequence read as a triangle: (Start)
A number m can be found in column k if and only if A286013(m, k) is nonzero, in which case m occurs in column k on row A286013(m, k).
The first occurrence of m is in row A212652(m) column A109814(m), which is the rightmost column in which m occurs. This occurrence determines where m appears in A209260. The last occurrence of m is in row m column 1.
Viewed as a sequence of rows, consider the subsequences (of rows) that contain every positive integer. The lexicographically latest of these subsequences consists of the rows with row numbers in A270877; this is the only one that contains its own row numbers only once.
(End)


REFERENCES

R. N. Cahn, SemiSimple Lie Algebras and Their Representations, Dover, NY, 2006, ISBN 0486449998, p. 139.


LINKS

Reinhard Zumkeller, Rows n = 1..125 of triangle, flattened
Johann Cigler, Some elementary observations on Narayana polynomials and related topics, arXiv:1611.05252 [math.CO], 2016. See p. 24.
Carlton Gamer, David W. Roeder, and John J. Watkins, Trapezoidal Numbers, Mathematics Magazine 58:2 (1985), pp. 108110.
L. E. Jeffery, Unitprimitive matrices
M. A. Nyblom, On the representation of the integers as a difference of nonconsecutive triangular numbers, Fibonacci Quarterly 39:3 (2001), pp. 256263.


FORMULA

t(n,m) = m*(2*n  m + 1)/2.
t(n,m) = A000217(n)  A000217(nm).  L. Edson Jeffery, Jan 16 2013
Let v = d*h with h odd be an integer factorization, then v = t(d+(h1)/2, h) if h+1 <= 2*d, and v = t(d+(h1)/2, 2*d) if h+1 > 2*d; see A209260.  Hartmut F. W. Hoft, Apr 14 2016
G.f.: y*(x + y)/((1 + x)^2*(1 + y)^3).  Stefano Spezia, Oct 14 2018
T(n, 2) = A060747(n) for n > 1. T(n, 3) = A008585(n  1) for n > 2. T(n, 4) = A016825(n  2) for n > 3. T(n, 5) = A008587(n  2) for n > 4. T(n, 6) = A016945(n  3) for n > 5. T(n, 7) = A008589(n  3) for n > 6. T(n, 8) = A017113(n  4) for n > 7.r n > 5. T(n, 7) = A008589(n  3) for n > 6. T(n, 8) = A017113(n  4) for n > 7. T(n, 9) = A008591(n  4) for n > 8. T(n, 10) = A017329(n  5) for n > 9. T(n, 11) = A008593(n  5) for n > 10. T(n, 12) = A017593(n  6) for n > 11. T(n, 13) = A008595(n  6) for n > 12. T(n, 14) = A147587(n  7) for n > 13. T(n, 15) = A008597(n  7) for n > 14. T(n, 16) = A051062(n  8) for n > 15. T(n, 17) = A008599(n  8) for n > 16.  Stefano Spezia, Oct 14 2018
T(2*nk, k) = A070543(n, k).  Peter Munn, Aug 21 2019


EXAMPLE

As a triangle:
1,
2, 3,
3, 5, 6,
4, 7, 9, 10,
5, 9, 12, 14, 15,
6, 11, 15, 18, 20, 21,
7, 13, 18, 22, 25, 27, 28,
8, 15, 21, 26, 30, 33, 35, 36,
9, 17, 24, 30, 35, 39, 42, 44, 45,
10, 19, 27, 34, 40, 45, 49, 52, 54, 55;
As a rectangle:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33
10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75
28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91
36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108
45 54 63 72 81 90 99 108 117 126
55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145
Since the odd divisors of 15 are 1, 3, 5 and 15, number 15 appears four times in the triangle at t(3+(51)/2, 5) in column 5 since 5+1 <= 2*3, t(5+(31)/2, 3), t(1+(151)/2, 2*1) in column 2 since 15+1 > 2*1, and t(15+(11)/2, 1).  Hartmut F. W. Hoft, Apr 14 2016


MAPLE

a:=(n, k)>k*nbinomial(k, 2): seq(seq(a(n, k), k=1..n), n=1..12); # Muniru A Asiru, Oct 14 2018


MATHEMATICA

T[n_, m_] = m*(2*n  m + 1)/2; a = Table[Table[T[n, m], {m, 1, n}], {n, 1, 10}]; Flatten[a]


PROG

(Haskell)
a141419 n k = k * (2 * n  k + 1) `div` 2
a141419_row n = a141419_tabl !! (n1)
a141419_tabl = map (scanl1 (+)) a004736_tabl
 Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 04 2014


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000330 (row sums), A004736, A057059, A070543.
A144112, A051340, A141419, A185874, A185875, A185876 are accumulation chain related.
A141418 is a variant.
Cf. A001227, A209260.  Hartmut F. W. Hoft, Apr 14 2016
A109814, A212652, A270877, A286013 relate to where each natural number appears in this sequence.
A000027, A000217, A000326, A005449, A045943, A059845, A115067, A140090, A140091, A140672 are rows, columns or diagonals  refer to comments.
Sequence in context: A216066 A234094 A301853 * A072451 A023156 A051599
Adjacent sequences: A141416 A141417 A141418 * A141420 A141421 A141422


KEYWORD

nonn,tabl,easy


AUTHOR

Roger L. Bagula, Aug 05 2008


EXTENSIONS

Simpler name by Stefano Spezia, Oct 14 2018


STATUS

approved



