login
This site is supported by donations to The OEIS Foundation.

 

Logo


Hints
(Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
A132393 Triangle of unsigned Stirling numbers of the first kind (see A048994), read by rows, T(n,k) for 0 <= k <= n. 80
1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 3, 1, 0, 6, 11, 6, 1, 0, 24, 50, 35, 10, 1, 0, 120, 274, 225, 85, 15, 1, 0, 720, 1764, 1624, 735, 175, 21, 1, 0, 5040, 13068, 13132, 6769, 1960, 322, 28, 1, 0, 40320, 109584, 118124, 67284, 22449, 4536, 546, 36, 1, 0, 362880, 1026576, 1172700 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,8

COMMENTS

Triangle T(n,k), 0<=k<=n, read by rows given by [0,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,...] DELTA [1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,...] where DELTA is the operator defined in A084938.

A094645*A007318 as infinite lower triangular matrices.

Row sums are the factorial numbers. - Roger L. Bagula, Apr 18 2008

Exponential Riordan array [1/(1-x), log(1/(1-x))]. - Ralf Stephan, Feb 07 2014

Also the Bell transform of the factorial numbers (A000142). For the definition of the Bell transform see A264428 and for cross-references A265606. - Peter Luschny, Dec 31 2015

This is the lower triagonal Sheffer matrix of the associated or Jabotinsky type |S1| = (1, -log(1-x)) (see the W. Lang link under A006232 for the notation and references). This implies the e.g.f.s given below. |S1| is the transition matrix from the monomial basis {x^n} to the rising factorial basis {risefac(x,n)}, n >= 0. - Wolfdieter Lang, Feb 21 2017

T(n, k), for n >= k >= 1, is also the total volume of the n-k dimensional cell (polytope) built from the n-k orthogonal vectors of pairwise different lengths chosen from the set {1, 2, ..., n-1}. See the elementary symmetric function formula for T(n, k) and an example below. - Wolfdieter Lang, May 28 2017

From Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 20 2017: (Start)

The compositional inverse w.r.t. x of y = y(t;x) = x*(1 - t(-log(1-x)/x)) = x + t*log(1-x) is x = x(t;y) = ED(y,t) := Sum_{d>=0} D(d,t)*y^(d+1)/(d+1)!, the e.g.f. of the o.g.f.s D(d,t) = Sum_{m>=0} T(d+m, m)*t^m of the diagonal sequences of the present triangle. See the P. Bala link for a proof (there d = n-1, n >= 1, is the label for the diagonals).

This inversion gives D(d,t) =  P(d, t)/(1-t)^(2*d+1), with the numerator polynomials P(d, t) =  Sum_{m=0..d} A288874(d, m)*t^m. See an example below. See also the P. Bala formula in A112007. (End)

REFERENCES

Steve Roman, The Umbral Calculus, Dover Publications, New York (1984), pp. 149-150

LINKS

Reinhard Zumkeller, Rows n = 0..125 of triangle, flattened

Roland Bacher, P. De La Harpe, Conjugacy growth series of some infinitely generated groups, hal-01285685v2, 2016.

Peter Bala, Diagonals of triangles with generating function exp(t*F(x)).

J. Fernando Barbero G., Jesús Salas, Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor, Bivariate Generating Functions for a Class of Linear Recurrences. I. General Structure, arXiv:1307.2010 [math.CO], 2013.

J. L. Baril, S. Kirgizov, The pure descent statistic on permutations, Preprint, 2016.

Ricky X. F. Chen, A Note on the Generating Function for the Stirling Numbers of the First Kind, Journal of Integer Sequences, 18 (2015), #15.3.8.

FindStat - Combinatorial Statistic Finder, The number of saliances of a permutation, The number of cycles in the cycle decomposition of a permutation.

Bill Gosper, Colored illustrations of triangle of Stirling numbers of first kind read mod 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

W. S. Gray and M. Thitsa, System Interconnections and Combinatorial Integer Sequences, in: System Theory (SSST), 2013 45th Southeastern Symposium on, Date of Conference: 11-11 March 2013, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/SSST.2013.6524939.

John M. Holte, Carries, Combinatorics and an Amazing Matrix, The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 104, No. 2 (Feb., 1997), pp. 138-149.

T. Khovanova, J. B. Lewis, Skyscraper Numbers, J. Int. Seq. 16 (2013) #13.7.2

Wolfdieter Lang, On Sums of Powers of Arithmetic Progressions, and Generalized Stirling, Eulerian and Bernoulli numbers, arXiv:1707.04451 [math.NT], 2017.

Shi-Mei Ma, Some combinatorial sequences associated with context-free grammars, arXiv:1208.3104v2 [math.CO], 2012. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 21 2012

Emanuele Munarini, Shifting Property for Riordan, Sheffer and Connection Constants Matrices, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 20 (2017), Article 17.8.2.

X.-T. Su, D.-Y. Yang, W.-W. Zhang, A note on the generalized factorial, Australasian Journal of Combinatorics, Volume 56 (2013), Pages 133-137.

FORMULA

T(n,k) = T(n-1,k-1)+(n-1)*T(n-1,k), n,k>=1; T(n,0)=T(0,k); T(0,0)=1.

Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*x^(n-k) = A000012(n), A000142(n), A001147(n), A007559(n), A007696(n), A008548(n), A008542(n), A045754(n), A045755(n) for x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 respectively. - Philippe Deléham, Nov 13 2007

Expand 1/(1-t)^x = Sum_{n>=0}p(x,n)*t^n/n!; then the coefficients of the p(x,n) produce the triangle. - Roger L. Bagula, Apr 18 2008

Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*2^k*x^(n-k) = A000142(n+1), A000165(n), A008544(n), A001813(n), A047055(n), A047657(n), A084947(n), A084948(n), A084949(n) for x = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 respectively. - Philippe Deléham, Sep 18 2008

a(n) = Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*3^k*x^(n-k) = A001710(n+2), A001147(n+1), A032031(n), A008545(n), A047056(n), A011781(n), A144739(n), A144756(n), A144758(n) for x=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,respectively. - Philippe Deléham, Sep 20 2008

Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*4^k*x^(n-k) = A001715(n+3), A002866(n+1), A007559(n+1), A047053(n), A008546(n), A049308(n), A144827(n), A144828(n), A144829(n) for x=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 respectively. - Philippe Deléham, Sep 21 2008

Sum_{k=0..n} x^k*T(n,k) = x*(1+x)*(2+x)*...*(n-1+x), n>=1. - Philippe Deléham, Oct 17 2008

From Wolfdieter Lang, Feb 21 2017: (Start)

E.g.f. k-th column: (-log(1 - x))^k, k >= 0.

E.g.f. triangle (see the Apr 18 2008 Baluga comment): exp(-x*log(1-z)).

E.g.f. a-sequence: x/(1 - exp(-x)). See A164555/A027642. The e.g.f. for the z-sequence is 0. (End)

From Wolfdieter Lang, May 28 2017: (Start)

The row polynomials R(n, x) = Sum_{k=0..n} T(n, k)*x^k, for n >= 0, are R(n, x) = risefac(x,n-1) := Product_{j=0..n-1} x+j, with the empty product for n=0 put to 1. See the Feb 21 2017 comment above. This implies:

T(n, k) = sigma^{(n-1)}_(n-k), for n >= k >= 1, with the elementary symmetric functions sigma^{(n-1))_m of degree m in the n-1 symbols 1, 2, ..., n-1, with binomial(n-1, m) terms. See an example below.(End)

Boas-Buck type recurrence for column sequence k: T(n, k) = (n!*k/(n - k)) * Sum_{p=k..n-1} beta(n-1-p)*T(p, k)/p!, for n > k >= 0, with input T(k, k) = 1, and beta(k) = A002208(k+1)/A002209(k+1). See a comment and references in A286718. - Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 11 2017

EXAMPLE

Triangle T(n,k) begins:

1;

0,    1;

0,    1,     1;

0,    2,     3,     1;

0,    6,    11,     6,    1;

0,   24,    50,    35,   10,    1;

0,  120,   274,   225,   85,   15,   1;

0,  720,  1764,  1624,  735,  175,  21,  1;

0, 5040, 13068, 13132, 6769, 1960, 322, 28, 1;

---------------------------------------------------

Production matrix is

0, 1

0, 1, 1

0, 1, 2,  1

0, 1, 3,  3,  1

0, 1, 4,  6,  4,  1

0, 1, 5, 10, 10,  5,  1

0, 1, 6, 15, 20, 15,  6, 1

0, 1, 7, 21, 35, 35, 21, 7, 1

...

From Wolfdieter Lang, May 09 2017: (Start)

Three term recurrence: 50 = T(5, 2) = 1*6 + (5-1)*11 = 50.

Recurrence from the Sheffer a-sequence [1, 1/2, 1/6, 0, ...]: 50 = T(5, 2) = (5/2)*(binomial(1, 1)*1*6 + binomial(2, 1)*(1/2)*11 + binomial(3, 1)*(1/6)*6 + 0) = 50. The vanishing z-sequence produces the k=0 column from T(0, 0) = 1. (End)

Elementary symmetric function T(4, 2) = sigma^{(3)}_2 = 1*2 + 1*3 + 2*3 = 11. Here the cells (polytopes) are 3 rectangles with total area 11. - Wolfdieter Lang, May 28 2017

O.g.f.s of diagonals: d=2 (third diagonal) [0, 6, 50, ...] has D(2,t) = P(2, t)/(1-t)^5, with P(2, t) = 2 + t, the n = 2 row of A288874. - Wolfdieter Lang, Jul 20 2017

Boas-Buck recurrence for column k = 2 and n= 5: T(5, 2) = (5!*2/3)*((3/8)*T(2,2)/2! + (5/12)*T(3,2)/3! + (1/2)*T(4,2)/4!) = (5!*2/3)*((3/16 + (5/12)*3/3! + (1/2)*11/4!) = 50. The beta sequence begins: {1/2, 5/12, 3/8, ...}. - Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 11 2017

MAPLE

a132393_row := proc(n) local k; seq(coeff(expand(pochhammer (x, n)), x, k), k=0..n) end: # Peter Luschny, Nov 28 2010

MATHEMATICA

p[t_] = 1/(1 - t)^x; Table[ ExpandAll[(n!)SeriesCoefficient[ Series[p[t], {t, 0, 30}], n]], {n, 0, 10}]; a = Table[(n!)* CoefficientList[SeriesCoefficient[ Series[p[t], {t, 0, 30}], n], x], {n, 0, 10}]; Flatten[a] (* Roger L. Bagula, Apr 18 2008 *)

Flatten[Table[Abs[StirlingS1[n, i]], {n, 0, 10}, {i, 0, n}]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Feb 04 2014 *)

PROG

(Maxima) create_list(abs(stirling1(n, k)), n, 0, 12, k, 0, n); /* Emanuele Munarini, Mar 11 2011 */

(Haskell)

a132393 n k = a132393_tabl !! n !! k

a132393_row n = a132393_tabl !! n

a132393_tabl = map (map abs) a048994_tabl

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 06 2013

CROSSREFS

Essentially a duplicate of A048994. Cf. A008275, A008277, A112007, A130534, A288874.

Sequence in context: A264430 A264433 A048994 * A121434 A296455 A137329

Adjacent sequences:  A132390 A132391 A132392 * A132394 A132395 A132396

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl,easy

AUTHOR

Philippe Deléham, Nov 10 2007, Oct 15 2008, Oct 17 2008

STATUS

approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Style Sheet | Transforms | Superseeker | Recent | More pages
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

License Agreements, Terms of Use, Privacy Policy. .

Last modified October 20 23:39 EDT 2018. Contains 316405 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)