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A128753 Triangle read by rows: T(n,k) is the number of skew Dyck paths of semilength n and having k UDUDU's (n >= 0; 0 <= k <= n-2 for n >= 2). 0
1, 1, 3, 9, 1, 31, 4, 1, 113, 19, 4, 1, 431, 86, 21, 4, 1, 1697, 393, 101, 23, 4, 1, 6847, 1800, 492, 116, 25, 4, 1, 28161, 8279, 2388, 596, 131, 27, 4, 1, 117631, 38218, 11603, 3032, 705, 146, 29, 4, 1, 497665, 177013, 56407, 15403, 3732, 819, 161, 31, 4, 1 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

A skew Dyck path is a path in the first quadrant which begins at the origin, ends on the x-axis, consists of steps U=(1,1)(up), D=(1,-1)(down) and L=(-1,-1)(left) so that up and left steps do not overlap. The length of a path is defined to be the number of its steps.

Rows 0 and 1 have one term each; row n has n-1 terms (n >= 2).

Row sums yield A002212.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..56.

E. Deutsch, E. Munarini, S. Rinaldi, Skew Dyck paths, J. Stat. Plann. Infer. 140 (8) (2010) 2191-2203.

FORMULA

T(n,0) = A052709(n+1).

Sum_{k=0..n-2} k*T(n,k) = A026376(n-2).

G.f.: G = G(t,z) satisfies z(1 + z - tz)G^2 - (1 - tz)G + 1 - tz = 0. G = C((1+z-tz)/(1-tz)), where C(z) = (1 - sqrt(1 - 4z))/(2z) is the Catalan function.

EXAMPLE

T(4,1)=4 because we have (UDUDU)UDD, (UDUDU)UDL, U(UDUDU)DD and U(UDUDU)DL (the subwords UDUDU are shown between parentheses).

Triangle starts

    1;

    1;

    3;

    9,  1;

   31,  4,  1;

  113, 19,  4,  1;

MAPLE

C:=z->(1-sqrt(1-4*z))/2/z: G:=C(z*(1+z-t*z)/(1-t*z)): Gser:=simplify(series(G, z=0, 15)): for n from 0 to 12 do P[n]:=sort(coeff(Gser, z, n)) od: 1; 1; for n from 2 to 12 do seq(coeff(P[n], t, j), j=0..n-2) od; # yields sequence in triangular form

CROSSREFS

Cf. A002212, A052709, A026376.

Sequence in context: A158483 A128733 A128724 * A179430 A016048 A256501

Adjacent sequences:  A128750 A128751 A128752 * A128754 A128755 A128756

KEYWORD

nonn,tabf

AUTHOR

Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2007

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 23 19:37 EDT 2019. Contains 328373 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)