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 A113688 Isolated semiprimes in the semiprime square spiral. 9

%I

%S 65,74,249,295,309,355,422,511,545,667,669,758,926,943,979,998,1099,

%T 1167,1186,1322,1457,1469,1561,1585,1658,1711,1774,1779,1835,1891,

%U 1959,1961,1963,2021,2038,2066,2155,2186,2191,2206,2271,2329,2342

%N Isolated semiprimes in the semiprime square spiral.

%C Write the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... in a counterclockwise square spiral. Analogous to Ulam's marking the primes in the spiral and discovering unexpectedly many connected diagonals, we construct a semiprime spiral by marking the semiprimes (A001358). Each integer has 8 adjacent integers in the spiral, horizontally, vertically and diagonally. Curious extended clumps coagulate, slightly denser towards the origin, of semiprimes connected by adjacency. This sequence lists the isolated semiprimes in the semiprime spiral, namely those semiprimes none of whose adjacent integers in the spiral are semiprimes. A113689 gives an enumeration of the number of semiprimes in clumps of size > 1 through n^2.

%C The squares of twin primes occupy adjacent points along the southeast diagonal, so none are isolated. Thus the only isolated semiprimes in the spiral that are squares are the squares of "isolated primes" (A007510). The first square in this sequence is a(1473) = 66049 = 257^2. - _Jon E. Schoenfield_, Aug 12 2018

%D S. M. Ellerstein, The square spiral, J. Recreational Mathematics 29 (#3, 1998) 188; 30 (#4, 1999-2000), 246-250.

%H Michael De Vlieger, <a href="/A113688/b113688.txt">Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..2000</a>

%H Alois P. Heinz, <a href="/A113688/a113688.png">Plot of semiprime spiral</a>, containing all semiprimes <= 10000. Isolated semiprimes are colored red.

%H M. Stein and S. M. Ulam, <a href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/2314055">An Observation on the Distribution of Primes</a>, Amer. Math. Monthly 74, 43-44, 1967.

%H M. Stein and S. M. Ulam and M. B. Wells, <a href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/2312588">A Visual Display of Some Properties of the Distribution of Primes</a>, Amer. Math. Monthly 71, 516-520, 1964.

%H Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PrimeSpiral.html">Prime Spiral</a>.

%H Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Semiprime.html">Semiprime</a>.

%e Spiral example:

%e .

%e 17--16--15--14--13

%e | |

%e 18 5---4---3 12

%e | | | |

%e 19 6 1---2 11

%e | | |

%e 20 7---8---9--10

%e |

%e 21--22--23--24--25

%e .

%e From _Michael De Vlieger_, Dec 22 2015: (Start)

%e Spiral including n <= 121 showing only semiprimes; the isolated semiprimes appear in parentheses:

%e .

%e .---.---.---.---.---.--95--94--93---.--91

%e | |

%e . (65)--.---.--62---.---.---.--58--57 .

%e | | | |

%e . . .---.--35--34--33---.---. . .

%e | | | | | |

%e . . 38 .---.--15--14---. . 55 .

%e | | | | | | | |

%e . . 39 . .---4---. . . . 87

%e | | | | | | | | | |

%e 106 69 . . 6 .---. . . . 86

%e | | | | | | | | |

%e . . . . .---.---9--10 . . 85

%e | | | | | | |

%e . . . 21--22---.---.--25--26 51 .

%e | | | | |

%e . . .---.---.--46---.---.--49---. .

%e | | |

%e . .-(74)--.---.--77---.---.---.---.--82

%e |

%e 111---.---.---.-115---.---.-118-119---.-121

%e .

%e (End)

%t spiral[n_] := Block[{o = 2 n - 1, t, w}, t = Table[0, {o}, {o}]; t = ReplacePart[t, {n, n} -> 1]; Do[w = Partition[Range[(2 (# - 1) - 1)^2 + 1, (2 # - 1)^2], 2 (# - 1)] &@ k; Do[t = ReplacePart[t, {(n + k) - (j + 1), n + (k - 1)} -> #[[1, j]]]; t = ReplacePart[t, {n - (k - 1), (n + k) - (j + 1)} -> #[[2, j]]]; t = ReplacePart[t, {(n - k) + (j + 1), n - (k - 1)} -> #[[3, j]]]; t = ReplacePart[t, {n + (k - 1), (n - k) + (j + 1)} -> #[[4, j]]], {j, 2 (k - 1)}] &@ w, {k, 2, n}]; t]; f[w_] := Block[{d = Dimensions@ w, t, g}, t = Reap[Do[Sow@ Take[#[[k]], {2, First@ d - 1}], {k, 2, Last@ d - 1}]][[-1, 1]] &@ w; g[n_] := If[n != 0, Total@ Join[Take[w[[Last@ # - 1]], {First@ # - 1, First@ # + 1}], {First@ #, Last@ #} &@ Take[w[[Last@ #]], {First@ # - 1, First@ # + 1}], Take[w[[Last@ # + 1]], {First@ # - 1, First@# + 1}]] &@(Reverse@ First@ Position[t, n] + {1, 1}) == 0, False]; Select[Union@ Flatten@ t, g@ # &]]; t = spiral@ 26 /. n_ /; PrimeOmega@ n != 2 -> 0; f@ t (* _Michael De Vlieger_, Dec 21 2015, Version 10 *)

%Y Cf. A001107, A001358, A002939, A002943, A004526, A005620, A007742, A033951-A033954, A033988, A033989-A033991, A033996, A063826.

%Y Cf. A115258 (isolated primes in Ulam's lattice).

%K easy,nonn

%O 1,1

%A _Jonathan Vos Post_, Nov 05 2005

%E Corrected and extended by _Alois P. Heinz_, Jan 02 2011

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Last modified January 21 22:55 EST 2020. Contains 331129 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)