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A111593 Triangle of tanh numbers. 7
1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, -2, 0, 1, 0, 0, -8, 0, 1, 0, 16, 0, -20, 0, 1, 0, 0, 136, 0, -40, 0, 1, 0, -272, 0, 616, 0, -70, 0, 1, 0, 0, -3968, 0, 2016, 0, -112, 0, 1, 0, 7936, 0, -28160, 0, 5376, 0, -168, 0, 1, 0, 0, 176896, 0, -135680, 0, 12432, 0, -240, 0, 1, 0, -353792, 0, 1805056, 0, -508640, 0, 25872 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,8

COMMENTS

Sheffer triangle associated to Sheffer triangle A060081.

For Sheffer triangles (matrices) see the explanation and S. Roman reference given under A048854.

In the umbral calculus (see the S. Roman reference) this triangle would be called associated for (1,arctanh(y)).

Without the n=0 row and m=0 column and unsigned, this is the Jabotinsky triangle A059419.

The inverse matrix of A with elements a(n,m), n,m>=0, is A111594.

The row polynomials p(n,x):=sum(a(n,m)*x^m,m=0..n), together with the row polynomials s(n,x) of A060081, satisfy the exponential (or binomial) convolution identity s(n,x+y) = sum(binomial(n,k)*s(k,x)*p(n-k,y),k=0..n), n>=0.

The row polynomials p(n,x) (defined above) have e.g.f. exp(x*tanh(y)).

Exponential Riordan array [1, tanh(x)], inverse of [1, atanh(x)] which is A111594. - Paul Barry, May 30 2010

Also the Bell transform of A155585(n+1). For the definition of the Bell transform see A264428. - Peter Luschny, Jan 26 2016

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..73.

W. Lang, First 10 rows.

FORMULA

E.g.f. for column m>=0: ((tanh(x))^m)/m!.

a(n, m) = coefficient of x^n of ((tanh(x))^m)/m!, n>=m>=0, else 0.

a(n, m) = a(n-1, m-1) - (m+1)*m*a(n-1, m+1), a(n, -1):=0, a(0, 0)=1, a(n, m)=0 for n<m.

T(n,m) = Sum_{k=0..n-m} binomial(k+m-1,m-1)*(k+m)!*(-1)^(k)*2^(n-k-m)*stirling2(n,k+m))/m!, T(0,0)=1. - Vladimir Kruchinin, Jun 09 2011

With e.g.f. exp(x*tanh(t)) = sum(n>= 0, P(n,x)*t^n/n!), the lowering operator is L = arctanh(d/dx) = d/dx + (1/3)(d/dx)^3 + (1/5)(d/dx)^5 + ..., and the raising operator is R = x [1 - (d/dx)^2], where L P(n,x) = n P(n-1,x) and R P(n,x) = P(n+1,x), since the sequence is a binomial Sheffer sequence. - Tom Copeland, Oct 01 2015

The raising operator R = x - x D^2 in matrix form acting on an o.g.f. (formal power series) is the transpose of the production matrix M below. The linear term x is the diagonal of ones after transposition. The other transposed diagonal (A002378) comes from -x D^2 x^n = -n * (n-1) x^(n-1). Then P(n,x) = (1,x,x^2,..) M^n (1,0,0,..)^T. - Tom Copeland, Aug 17 2016

EXAMPLE

Binomial convolution of row polynomials: p(3,x)= -2*x+x^3; p(2,x)=x^2, p(1,x)= x, p(0,x)= 1, together with those from A060081:

s(3,x)= -5*x+x^3; s(2,x)= -1+x^2, s(1,x)= x, s(0,x)= 1;

therefore -5*(x+y)+(x+y)^3 = s(3,x+y) = 1*s(0,x)*p(3,y) + 3*s(1,x)*p(2,y) + 3*s(2,x)*p(1,y) +1*s(3,x)*p(0,y) = -2*y+y^3 + 3*x*y^2 + 3*(-1+x^2)*y + (-5*x+x^3).

From Paul Barry, May 30 2010: (Start)

Triangle begins

1,

0, 1,

0, 0, 1,

0, -2, 0, 1,

0, 0, -8, 0, 1,

0, 16, 0, -20, 0, 1,

0, 0, 136, 0, -40, 0, 1,

0, -272, 0, 616, 0, -70, 0, 1,

0, 0, -3968, 0, 2016, 0, -112, 0, 1

Production matrix begins

0, 1,

0, 0, 1,

0, -2, 0, 1,

0, 0, -6, 0, 1,

0, 0, 0, -12, 0, 1,

0, 0, 0, 0, -20, 0, 1,

0, 0, 0, 0, 0, -30, 0, 1,

0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, -42, 0, 1,

0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, -56, 0, 1 (End)

MAPLE

# The function BellMatrix is defined in A264428.

BellMatrix(n -> 2^(n+1)*euler(n+1, 1), 9); # Peter Luschny, Jan 26 2016

MATHEMATICA

t[0, 0] = 1; t[n_, m_] := Sum[ Binomial[k+m-1, m-1]*(k+m)!*(-1)^(k)*2^(n-k-m)*StirlingS2[n, k+m], {k, 0, n-m}]/m!; Table[t[n, m], {n, 0, 11}, {m, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Jul 05 2013, after Vladimir Kruchinin *)

PROG

(Maxima)

T(n, m):=if n=0 and m=0 then 1 else sum(binomial(k+m-1, m-1)*(k+m)!*(-1)^(k)*2^(n-k-m)*stirling2(n, k+m), k, 0, n-m)/m!; /* Vladimir Kruchinin, Jun 09 2011 */

(Sage)

# The function riordan_array is defined in A256893.

riordan_array(1, tanh(x), 9, exp=true) # Peter Luschny, Apr 19 2015

CROSSREFS

Row sums: A003723. Unsigned row sums: A006229.

Cf. A059419, A060081, A111594.

Cf. A002378.

Sequence in context: A256038 A050327 A075120 * A111594 A237996 A203951

Adjacent sequences:  A111590 A111591 A111592 * A111594 A111595 A111596

KEYWORD

sign,easy,tabl

AUTHOR

Wolfdieter Lang, Aug 23 2005

STATUS

approved

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Last modified February 24 04:33 EST 2018. Contains 299595 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)