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A106313 Differences between the prime-counting function and Gauss's approximation. 6
1, 4, 9, 16, 37, 129, 338, 753, 1700, 3103, 11587, 38262, 108970, 314889, 1052618, 3214631, 7956588, 21949554, 99877774, 222744643, 597394253, 1932355207, 7250186215, 17146907277 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)



From Vladimir Pletser, Mar 16 2013: (Start)

As Li(2) = 1.04516..., a(n) = A057752(n) - 1.

This sequence gives the exact values of the difference between Gauss's Li (defined as integral(2..10^n, dt/log(t)) or Li(10^n)-Li(2)) and the number of primes <= 10^n (A006880). For large values of x=10^n, Li(2) can be neglected but for small values of x=10^n, the value of Li(2) cannot be neglected.

This sequence yields a better average relative difference, i.e., average(a(n)/pi(10^n)) = 2.0116...x10^-2 for 1<=n<=24, compared to average(A057752(n)/pi(10^n)) = 3.2486...x10^-2. However see also Li(10^n)-Li(3) in A223166 and A223167.

Note that most of the Tables in the literature giving the difference of Li(10^n) - pi(10^n) use the values of A057752 as the difference between Gauss's Li values and pi(10^n). This is incorrect and the values above should be used instead. For example (certainly not exhaustive):

- John H. Conway and R. K. Guy in "The Book of Numbers" show in Fig. 5.2, p. 144, Li(N) as integral(2..10^n, dt/log(t)) but reports values of A057752 (the difference of integral(0..10^n, dt/log(t)) and pi(10^n)) in Table 5.2, p. 146;

- E. Weinstein in "Prime Counting Function" gives also values of -(A057752) for pi(10^n)-Li(10^n)

- Wikipedia gives a Table with Li(10^n)-pi(10^n) (A057752);

- C. K. Caldwell in Table 3 in the link below give values of Li(10^n) while values of Li(10^n) - Li(2) would be more suited. (End)


Jonathan Borwein, David H. Bailey, Mathematics by Experiment, A. K. Peters, 2004, p. 65 (Table 2.2).

John H. Conway and R. K. Guy, The Book of Numbers, Copernicus, an imprint of Springer-Verlag, NY, 1996, page 144.


Table of n, a(n) for n=1..24.

C. K. Caldwell, How Many Primes Are There?

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Prime Counting Function

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, LogarithmicIntegral

Wikipedia, “Prime-counting function”, Prime-counting_function


The prime counting function pi(x) runs through x = 10^1, 10^2, 10^3, ...; being subtracted from Gauss's approximation, integral(2, x)dt/log t.

a(n) = A190802(n) - A006880(n).


Given x = 10^4, pi(x) = 1229, Gauss's approximation = 1245. Thus a(4) = 1245 - 1229 = 16.


Cf. A057754, A057752, A006880, A190802, A106313, A223166, A223167.

Sequence in context: A231180 A250029 A111378 * A219355 A074101 A034377

Adjacent sequences:  A106310 A106311 A106312 * A106314 A106315 A106316




Gary W. Adamson, Apr 28 2005


a(23)-a(24) from Nathaniel Johnston, May 25 2011



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Last modified March 28 02:00 EDT 2017. Contains 284182 sequences.