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A087107 This table shows the coefficients of combinatorial formulas needed for generating the sequential sums of p-th powers of tetrahedral numbers. The p-th row (p>=1) contains a(i,p) for i=1 to 3*p-2, where a(i,p) satisfies Sum_{i=1..n} C(i+2,3)^p = 4 * C(n+3,4) * Sum_{i=1..3*p-2} a(i,p) * C(n-1,i-1)/(i+3). 11
1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 1, 15, 69, 147, 162, 90, 20, 1, 63, 873, 5191, 16620, 31560, 36750, 25830, 10080, 1680, 1, 255, 9489, 130767, 919602, 3832650, 10238000, 18244380, 21990360, 17745000, 9198000, 2772000, 369600, 1, 1023, 97953, 2903071, 40317780 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,3

COMMENTS

Let s_n denote the sequence (1, 4^n, 10^n, 20^n, ...) regarded as an infinite column vector, where 1, 4, 10, 20, ... is the sequence of tetrahedral numbers A000292. It appears that the n-th row of this table is determined by the matrix product P^(-1)s_n, where P denotes Pascal's triangle A007318. - Peter Bala, Nov 26 2017

From Peter Bala, Mar 11 2018: (Start)

The observation above is correct.

The table entries T(n,k) are the coefficients when expressing the polynomial C(x+3,3)^p of degree 3*p in terms of falling factorials: C(x+3,3)^p = Sum_{k = 0..3*p} T(p,k)*C(x,k). It follows that Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(i+3,3)^p = Sum_{k = 0..3*p} T(p,k)*C(n,k+1).

The sum of the p-th powers of the tetrahedral numbers is also given by Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(i+3,3)^p = Sum_{k = 3..3*p} A299041(p,k)*C(n+3,k+1) for p >= 1. (End)

LINKS

G. C. Greubel, Table of n, a(n) for the first 50 rows, flattened

Dukes, C. D. White, Web Matrices: Structural Properties and Generating Combinatorial Identities, arXiv:1603.01589 [math.CO], 2016.

FORMULA

a(i, p) = Sum_{k=1..[2*i+1+(-1)^(i-1)]/4} [ C(i-1, 2*k-2)*C(i-2*k+4, i-2*k+1)^(p-1) -C(i-1, 2*k-1)*C(i-2*k+3, i-2*k)^(p-1) ].

From Peter Bala, Nov 26 2017: (Start)

Conjectural formula for table entries: T(n,k) = Sum_{j = 0..k} (-1)^(k+j)*binomial(k,j)*binomial(j+3,3)^n.

Conjecturally, the n-th row polynomial R(n,x) = 1/(1 + x)*Sum_{i >= 0} binomial(i+3,3)^n *(x/(1 + x))^n. (End)

From Peter Bala, Mar 11 2018: (Start)

The conjectures above are correct.

The following remarks assume the row and column indices start at 0.

T(n+1,k) = C(k+3,3)*T(n,k) + 3*C(k+2,3)*T(n,k-1) + 3*C(k+1,3)*T(n,k-2) + C(k,3)*T(n,k-3) with boundary conditions T(n,0) = 1 for all n and T(n,k) = 0 for k > 3*n.

Sum_{k = 0..3*n} T(n,k)*binomial(x,k) = (binomial(x+3,3))^n.

x^3*R(n,x) = (1 + x)^3 * the n-th row polynomial of A299041.

R(n+1,x) = 1/3!*(1 + x)^3*(d/dx)^3 (x^3*R(n,x)).

(1 - x)^(3*n)*R(n,x/(1 - x)) gives the n-th row polynomial of A174266.

R(n,x) = (1 + x)^3 o (1 + x)^3 o ... o (1 + x)^3 (n factors), where o denotes the black diamond product of power series defined in Dukes and White. Note the polynomial x^3 o ... o x^3 (n factors) is the n-th row polynomial of A299041. (End)

EXAMPLE

Row 3 contains 1,15,69,147,162,90,20, so Sum_{i=1..n} C(i+2,3)^3 = 4 * C(n+3,4) * [ a(1,3)/4 + a(2,3)*C(n-1,1)/5 + a(3,3)*C(n-1,2)/6 + ... + a(7,3)*C(n-1,6)/10 ] = 4 * C(n+3,4) * [ 1/4 + 15*C(n-1,1)/5 + 69*C(n-1,2)/6 + 147*C(n-1,3)/7 + 162*C(n-1,4)/8 + 90*C(n-1,5)/9 + 20*C(n-1,6)/10 ]. Cf. A086021 for more details.

From Peter Bala, Mar 11 2018: (Start)

Table begins

n=0 | 1

n=1 | 1  3   3    1

n=2 | 1 15  69  147   162    90    20

n=3 | 1 63 873 5191 16620 31560 36750 25830 10080 1680

...

Row 2: C(i+3,3)^2 = C(i,0) + 15*C(i,1) + 69*C(i,2) + 147*C(i,3) + 162*C(i,4) + 90*C(i,5) + 20*C(i,6). Hence, Sum_{i = 0..n-1} C(i+3,3)^2 =  C(n,1) + 15*C(n,2) + 69*C(n,3) + 147*C(n,4) + 162*C(n,5) + 90*C(n,6) + 20*C(n,7). (End)

MAPLE

seq(seq(add( (-1)^(k-i)*binomial(k, i)*binomial(i+3, 3)^n, i= 0..k), k = 0..3*n), n = 0..8); # Peter Bala, Mar 11 2018

MATHEMATICA

a[i_, p_] := Sum[Binomial[i - 1, 2*k - 2]*Binomial[i - 2*k + 4, i - 2*k + 1]^(p - 1) - Binomial[i - 1, 2*k - 1]*Binomial[i - 2*k + 3, i - 2*k]^(p - 1), {k, 1, (2*i + 1 + (-1)^(i - 1))/4}]; Table[If[p == 1, 1, a[i, p]], {p, 1, 10}, {i, 1, 3*p - 2}]//Flatten (* G. C. Greubel, Nov 23 2017 *)

PROG

(PARI) {a(i, p) = sum(k=1, (2*i + 1 + (-1)^(i - 1))/4, binomial(i - 1, 2*k - 2)*binomial(i - 2*k + 4, i - 2*k + 1)^(p - 1) - binomial(i - 1, 2*k - 1)*binomial(i - 2*k + 3, i - 2*k)^(p - 1))}; for(p=1, 8, for(i=1, 3*p-2, print1(if(p==1, 1, a(i, p)), ", "))) \\ G. C. Greubel, Nov 23 2017

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000292, A024166, A087127, A024166, A085438, A085439, A085440, A085441, A085442, A000332, A086020, A086021, A086022, A087108, A000389, A086023, A086024, A087109, A000579, A086025, A086026, A087110, A000580, A086027, A086028, A087111, A027555, A086029, A086030.

Cf. A087127, A087110, A174266, A299041.

Sequence in context: A176344 A075837 A178885 * A155170 A126460 A173503

Adjacent sequences:  A087104 A087105 A087106 * A087108 A087109 A087110

KEYWORD

easy,nonn,tabf

AUTHOR

André F. Labossière, Aug 11 2003

EXTENSIONS

Edited by Dean Hickerson, Aug 16 2003

STATUS

approved

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Last modified November 17 12:39 EST 2018. Contains 317276 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)