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 A083515 Smallest number k such that R(n) + k is a square, where R(n) = A002275. 0
 0, 5, 10, 45, 125, 445, 1914, 4445, 1570, 44445, 156989, 444445, 941538, 4444445, 9826365, 44444445, 139362425, 444444445, 1287131805, 4444444445, 2222074045, 44444444445, 11388893810, 444444444445, 1138889380989, 4444444444445 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 1,2 COMMENTS For n > 1, a(n) is never zero. Proof: R(2) = 4*2+3, R(3) = 4*27+3. In general 111...1 = 4*2777...7+3, or if f(n) = 2777...7 = (7/9)*(-1 + 10^n) + 2^(n+1)*5^n, then R(n) = 4*f(n-2) + 3. Hence repunits are of the form 4m+3 and cannot be square. [Paraphrased from Tattersall] REFERENCES J. Tattersall, "Elementary Number Theory in Nine Chapters". Cambridge University Press, 2001. pp. 57, 330. LINKS FORMULA a(n) = ceiling(sqrt(R(n)))^2 - R(n). EXAMPLE a(5) = 125 because 11111 + 125 = 11236 is a square. CROSSREFS Cf. A002275. Sequence in context: A187877 A328605 A122173 * A343467 A103971 A270085 Adjacent sequences:  A083512 A083513 A083514 * A083516 A083517 A083518 KEYWORD easy,nonn AUTHOR Jason Earls, Jun 09 2003 STATUS approved

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Last modified April 17 10:23 EDT 2021. Contains 343064 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)