login
This site is supported by donations to The OEIS Foundation.

 

Logo

Annual Appeal: Today, Nov 11 2014, is the 4th anniversary of the launch of the new OEIS web site. 70,000 sequences have been added in these four years, all edited by volunteers. Please make a donation (tax deductible in the US) to help keep the OEIS running.

Hints
(Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
A077428 Minimal (positive) solution a(n) of Pell equation a(n)^2 - D(n)*b(n)^2 = +4 with D(n)= A077425(n). The companion sequence is b(n)=A078355(n). 20
3, 11, 66, 5, 27, 46, 146, 4098, 7, 51, 302, 1523, 258, 25, 4562498, 9, 83, 1000002, 29, 125619266, 402, 82, 68123, 2408706, 11, 123, 33710, 173, 12166146, 190, 578, 3723, 4354, 45371, 23550, 13, 171, 124846, 1703027, 18498, 110, 12448646853698, 786 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

Computed from Perron's table (see reference p. 108, for n = 1..28) which gives the minimal x,y values for the Diophantine eq. x^2 - x*y - ((D(n)-1)/4)*y^2= +1, resp., -1 if D(n)=A077425(n), resp, D(n)=A077425(n) and D(n) also in A077426.

The conversion from the x,y values of Perron's table to the minimal a=a(n) and b=b(n) solutions of a^2 - D(n)*b^2 =+4 is as follows. If D(n)=A077425(n) but not from A077426 (period length of continued fraction of (sqrt(D(n))+1)/2 is even) then a(n)=2*x(n)-y(n) and b(n)=y(n). E.g. D(4)=21 with Perron's (x,y)=(3,1) and (a,b)=(5,1). 1=b(4)=A078355(4). If D(n)=A077425(n) appears also in A077426 (odd period length of continued fraction of (sqrt(D(n))+1)/2) then a(n)=(2*x-y)^2+2 and b(n)=(2*x-y)*y. E.g. D(7)=37 with Perron's (x,y)=(7,2) leading to (a,b)=(146,24) with 24=b(7)=A078355(7).

The generic D(n) values are those from A078371(k-1) := (2*k+3)*(2*k-1), for k>=1, which are 5 (mod 8). For such D values the minimal solution is (a(n),b(n))=(2*k+1,1) (e.g. D(16)=77= A078371(3) with a(16)=2*4+1=9 and b(16)=A078355(16)=1).

The general solution of Pell a^2-D(n)*b^2 = +4 with generic D(n)=A077425(n)=A078371(k-1), k>=1, is a(n,m)= 2*T(m+1,(2*k+1)/2) and b(n,m)= S(m,2*k+1), m>=0, with T(n,x), resp. S(n,x), Chebyshev's polynomials of the first, resp. second, kind. See A053120 resp. A049310.

For non-generic D(n) (not from A078371) the general solution of a^2-D(n)*b^2 = +4 is a(n,m)= 2*T(m+1,a(n)/2) and b(n,m)= b(n)*S(m,a(n)), m>=0, with Chebyshev's polynomials and in this case b(n)>1.

REFERENCES

O. Perron, "Die Lehre von den Kettenbruechen, Bd.I", Teubner, 1954, 1957 (Sec. 30, Satz 3.35, p. 109 and table p. 108).

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..43.

S. R. Finch, Class number theory

Index entries for sequences related to Chebyshev polynomials.

MATHEMATICA

d = Select[Range[5, 300, 4], !IntegerQ[Sqrt[#]]&]; a[n_] := Module[{a, b, r}, a /. {r = Reduce[a > 0 && b > 0 && a^2 - d[[n]]*b^2 == 4, {a, b}, Integers]; (r /. C[1] -> 0) || (r /. C[1] -> 1) // ToRules} // Select[#, IntegerQ, 1] &] // First; Table[a[n], {n, 1, 43}] (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Jul 30 2013 *)

CROSSREFS

Sequence in context: A030226 A233099 A132101 * A222765 A173235 A201259

Adjacent sequences:  A077425 A077426 A077427 * A077429 A077430 A077431

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Wolfdieter Lang, Nov 29 2002

EXTENSIONS

More terms from Max Alekseyev, Mar 03 2010

STATUS

approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Transforms | Superseeker | Recent | More pages
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

Content is available under The OEIS End-User License Agreement .

Last modified November 23 18:50 EST 2014. Contains 249865 sequences.