

A072272


Number of active cells in nth stage of growth of twodimensional cellular automaton defined by "Rule 614", based on the 5celled von Neumann neighborhood.


25



1, 5, 5, 17, 5, 25, 17, 61, 5, 25, 25, 85, 17, 85, 61, 217, 5, 25, 25, 85, 25, 125, 85, 305, 17, 85, 85, 289, 61, 305, 217, 773, 5, 25, 25, 85, 25, 125, 85, 305, 25, 125, 125, 425, 85, 425, 305, 1085, 17, 85, 85, 289, 85, 425, 289, 1037, 61, 305, 305, 1037, 217, 1085, 773, 2753
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OFFSET

0,2


COMMENTS

Consider only the four nearest (N,S,E,W) neighbors of a cell together with the cell itself. In the next state, the state of a cell will change if an odd number of these five cells is ON. [Comment corrected by N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 25 2014]
Equivalently, a(n) is the number of ON cells at generation n of 2D CA defined as follows: the neighborhood of a cell consists of the cell itself and the four adjacent E, W, N, S cells. A cell is ON iff an odd number of these cells was ON at the previous generation.  N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 20 2014. This is the oddrule cellular automaton defined by OddRule 057 (see EkhadSloaneZeilberger "OddRule Cellular Automata on the Square Grid" link).
This is the Run Length Transform of A007483.  N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 25 2014
The Run Length Transform of a sequence {S(n), n>=0} is defined to be the sequence {T(n), n>=0} given by T(n) = Product_i S(i), where i runs through the lengths of runs of 1's in the binary expansion of n. E.g., 19 is 10011 in binary, which has two runs of 1's, of lengths 1 and 2. So T(19) = S(1)*S(2). T(0)=1 (the empty product).  N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 25 2014
The partial sums are in A253908, in which the structure looks like an irregular step pyramid.  Omar E. Pol, Jan 29 2015
Rules 518, 550 and 582 also generate this sequence.  Robert Price, Mar 01 2016


REFERENCES

S. Wolfram, A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media, 2002; p. 170179.


LINKS

Alois P. Heinz, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..8192
David Applegate, Omar E. Pol and N. J. A. Sloane, The Toothpick Sequence and Other Sequences from Cellular Automata, Congressus Numerantium, Vol. 206 (2010), 157191. [There is a typo in Theorem 6: (13) should read u(n) = 4.3^(wt(n1)1) for n >= 2.]
Shalosh B. Ekhad, N. J. A. Sloane, and Doron Zeilberger, A MetaAlgorithm for Creating Fast Algorithms for Counting ON Cells in OddRule Cellular Automata, arXiv:1503.01796 [math.CO], 2015; see also the Accompanying Maple Package.
Shalosh B. Ekhad, N. J. A. Sloane, and Doron Zeilberger, OddRule Cellular Automata on the Square Grid, arXiv:1503.04249 [math.CO], 2015.
Nathan Epstein, Animation of CA generating A072272
N. H. Packard and S. Wolfram, TwoDimensional Cellular Automata, Journal of Statistical Physics, 38 (1985), 901946.
N. J. A. Sloane, Illustration of first 15 generations
N. J. A. Sloane, Illustration of first 28 generations
N. J. A. Sloane, Illustration for a(15)=217
N. J. A. Sloane, Illustration for a(31)=773
N. J. A. Sloane, Illustration for a(63)=2753
N. J. A. Sloane, Catalog of Toothpick and Cellular Automata Sequences in the OEIS
N. J. A. Sloane, On the Number of ON Cells in Cellular Automata, arXiv:1503.01168 [math.CO], 2015.
N. J. A. Sloane, On the No. of ON Cells in Cellular Automata, Video of talk in Doron Zeilberger's Experimental Math Seminar at Rutgers University, Feb. 05 2015: Part 1, Part 2
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Elementary Cellular Automaton
S. Wolfram, A New Kind of Science
Index to 2D 5Neighbor Cellular Automata
Index to Elementary Cellular Automata
Index entries for sequences related to cellular automata


FORMULA

a(0)=1; thereafter a(2t)=a(t), a(4t+1)=5*a(t), a(4t+3)=3*a(2t+1)+2*a(t).  N. J. A. Sloane, Jan 26 2015


EXAMPLE

To illustrate a(0) = 1, a(1) = 5, a(2) = 5, a(3) = 17:
......................0
.............0.......000
.......0............0...0
.0....000..0.0.0...00.0.00
.......0............0...0
.............0.......000
......................0
From Omar E. Pol, Jan 29 2015: (Start)
May be arranged into blocks of sizes A011782:
1;
5;
5,17;
5,25,17,61;
5,25,25,85,17,85,61,217;
5,25,25,85,25,125,85,305,17,85,85,289,61,305,217,773;
5,25,25,85,25,125,85,305,25,125,125,425,85,425,305,1085,17,85,85,289,85,425,289,1037,61,305,305,1037,217,1085,773,2753;
So the right border gives A007483.
(End)
From Omar E. Pol, Mar 19 2015: (Start)
Also, the sequence can be written as an irregular tetrahedron T(s,r,k) as shown below:
1;
..
5;
..
5;
17;
..........
5, 25;
17;
61;
.....................
5, 25, 25, 85;
17, 85;
61;
217;
..........................................
5, 25, 25, 85, 25, 125, 85, 305;
17, 85, 85, 289;
61, 305;
217;
773;
.................................................................................
5, 25, 25, 85, 25, 125, 85, 305, 25, 125, 125, 425, 85, 425, 305, 1085;
17, 85, 85, 289, 85, 425, 289, 1037;
61, 305, 305, 1037;
217, 1085;
773;
2753;
...
Apart from the initial 1, we have that T(s,r,k) = T(s+1,r,k).
It appears that the configuration of ON cells of T(s,r,k) is of the same kind as the configuration of ON cells of T(s+1,r,k).
(End)


MAPLE

C:=f>subs({x=1, y=1}, f);
# Find number of ON cells in CA for generations 0 thru M defined by rule
# that cell is ON iff number of ON cells in nbd at time n1 was odd
# where nbd is defined by a polynomial or Laurent series f(x, y).
OddCA:=proc(f, M) global C; local n, a, i, f2, g, p;
f2:=simplify(expand(f)) mod 2;
a:=[]; p:=1; g:=f2;
for n from 0 to M do a:=[op(a), C(p)]; p:=expand(p*f2) mod 2; od:
lprint([seq(a[i], i=1..nops(a))]);
end;
f:=1+1/x+x+1/y+y;
OddCA(f, 100);
# N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 20 2014


MATHEMATICA

Map[Function[Apply[Plus, Flatten[ #1]]], CellularAutomaton[{ 614, {2, {{0, 2, 0}, {2, 1, 2}, {0, 2, 0}}}, {1, 1}}, {{{1}}, 0}, 100]] (* N. J. A. Sloane, Apr 17 2010 *)
ArrayPlot /@ CellularAutomaton[{ 614, {2, {{0, 2, 0}, {2, 1, 2}, {0, 2, 0}}}, {1, 1}}, {{{1}}, 0}, 6] (* N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 25 2014 *)


CROSSREFS

Cf. A048883, A170878 (first differences), A253908 (partial sums).
See A253090 for 9celled neighborhood version.
Sequence in context: A194615 A195465 A173464 * A273502 A273606 A273544
Adjacent sequences: A072269 A072270 A072271 * A072273 A072274 A072275


KEYWORD

nonn,nice


AUTHOR

Miklos Kristof, Jul 09 2002


EXTENSIONS

Extended and edited by John W. Layman, Jul 17 2002
Minor edits by N. J. A. Sloane, Jan 07 2010
More terms from N. J. A. Sloane, Apr 17 2010


STATUS

approved



