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A059100 a(n) = n^2 + 2. 58
2, 3, 6, 11, 18, 27, 38, 51, 66, 83, 102, 123, 146, 171, 198, 227, 258, 291, 326, 363, 402, 443, 486, 531, 578, 627, 678, 731, 786, 843, 902, 963, 1026, 1091, 1158, 1227, 1298, 1371, 1446, 1523, 1602, 1683, 1766, 1851, 1938, 2027, 2118, 2211, 2306, 2403 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,1

COMMENTS

Let s(n) = Sum_{k>=1} 1/n^(2^k). Then I conjecture that the maximum element in the continued fraction for s(n) is n^2 + 2. - Benoit Cloitre, Aug 15 2002

Binomial transformation yields A081908, with A081908(0)=1 dropped. - R. J. Mathar, Oct 05 2008

a(3*n) mod 9 = 2. - Paul Curtz, Nov 07 2012

1/a(n) = R(n)/r with R(n) the n-th radius of the Pappus chain of the symmetric arbelos with semicircle radii r, r1 = r/2 = r2. See the MathWorld link for Pappus chain (there are two of them, a left and a right one. In this case these two chains are congruent). - Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 01 2013

a(n) is the number of election results for an election with n+2 candidates, say C1, C2, ..., and C(n+2), and with only two voters (each casting a single vote) that have C1 and C2 receiving the same number of votes. See link below. - Dennis P. Walsh, May 08 2013

This sequence gives the set of values such that for sequences b(k+1) = a(n)*b(k) - b(k-1), with initial values b(0) = 2, b(1) = a(n), all such sequences are invariant under this transformation: b(k) = (b(j+k) + b(j-k))/b(j), except where b(j) = 0, for all integer values of j and k, including negative values. Examples are: at n=0, b(k) = 2 for all k; at n=1, b(k) = A005248; at n=2, b(k) = 2*A001541; at n=3, b(k)= A057076; at n=4, b(k) = 2*A023039. This b(k) family are also the transformation results for all related b'(k) (i.e., those with different initial values) including non-integer values. Further, these b(k) are also the bisections of the transformations of sequences of the form G(k+1) = n * G(k) + G(k-1), and those bisections are invariant for all initial values of g(0) and g(1), including non-integer values. For n = 1 this g(k) family includes Fibonacci and Lucas, where the invariant bisection is b(k) = A005248. The applicable bisection for this transformation of g(k) is for the odd values of k, and applies for all n. Also see A000032 for a related family of sequences. - Richard R. Forberg, Nov 22 2014

Also the number of maximum matchings in the n-gear graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Dec 31 2017

Also the Wiener index of the n-dipyramidal graph. - Eric W. Weisstein, Jun 14 2018

LINKS

Harry J. Smith, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000

Hesam Dashti, A New Upper Bound on the Length of Shortest Permutation Strings; An Algorithm for Generating Permutation Strings, arXiv:1009.5053 [math.CO], Sep 26, 2010. - Jonathan Vos Post, Sep 28 2010

Guo-Niu Han, Enumeration of Standard Puzzles [BROKEN LINK]

Guo-Niu Han, Enumeration of Standard Puzzles [Cached copy]

Dennis P. Walsh, Notes on a tied election

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Dipyramidal Graph

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Gear Graph

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Matching

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Maximum Independent Edge Set

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Near-Square Prime

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Pappus Chain

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Wiener Index

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (3,-3,1).

FORMULA

G.f.: (2-3x+3x^2)/(1-x)^3. - R. J. Mathar, Oct 05 2008

a(n) = ((n-2)^2 + 2*(n+1)^2)/3. - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 13 2009

a(n) = A000196(A156798(n) - A000290(n)). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 16 2009

a(n) = 2*n+a(n-1)-1 with a(0)=2. - Vincenzo Librandi, Aug 07 2010

a(n+3) = (A166464(n+5)-A166464(n))/20. - Paul Curtz, Nov 07 2012

a(3*n+1) = 3*A056109(n). a(3*n+2) = 3*A056105(n+1). - Paul Curtz, Nov 07 2012

Sum_{n>=1} 1/a(n) = Pi * coth(sqrt(2)*Pi) / 2^(3/2) - 1/4. - Vaclav Kotesovec, May 01 2018

EXAMPLE

For n=2, a(2)=6 since there are 6 election results in a 4-candidate, 2-voter election that have candidates c1 and c2 tied. Letting <i,j> denote voter 1 voting for candidate i and voter 2 voting for candidate j, the six election results are <1,2>, <2,1>, <3,3>, <3,4>, <4,3>, and <4,4>. - Dennis P. Walsh, May 08 2013

MAPLE

with(combinat, fibonacci):seq(fibonacci(3, i)+1, i=0..49); # Zerinvary Lajos, Mar 20 2008

MATHEMATICA

Table[n^2 + 2, {n, 0, 50}] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Dec 15 2008 *)

LinearRecurrence[{3, -3, 1}, {2, 3, 6}, 50] (* Vincenzo Librandi, Feb 15 2012 *)

Range[0, 20]^2 + 2 (* Eric W. Weisstein, Dec 31 2017 *)

CoefficientList[Series[(-2 + 3 x - 3 x^2)/(-1 + x)^3, {x, 0, 20}], x] (* Eric W. Weisstein, Dec 31 2017 *)

PROG

(Sage) [lucas_number1(3, n, -2) for n in xrange(0, 50)] # Zerinvary Lajos, May 16 2009

(PARI) { for (n = 0, 1000, write("b059100.txt", n, " ", n^2+2); ) } \\ Harry J. Smith, Jun 24 2009

(Haskell)

a059100 = (+ 2) . (^ 2)

a059100_list = scanl (+) (2) [1, 3 ..]

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 09 2015

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000290, A002522, A056899. Apart from initial terms, same as A010000.

Cf. A069987, A114964 (see comment).

Cf. A008865. 2nd row/column of A295707.

Sequence in context: A034031 A121617 A157656 * A131512 A147388 A180712

Adjacent sequences:  A059097 A059098 A059099 * A059101 A059102 A059103

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Henry Bottomley, Feb 13 2001

STATUS

approved

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Last modified September 24 07:30 EDT 2018. Contains 315308 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)