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A033716 Number of integer solutions to the equation x^2 + 3y^2 = n. 16
1, 2, 0, 2, 6, 0, 0, 4, 0, 2, 0, 0, 6, 4, 0, 0, 6, 0, 0, 4, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 2, 12, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 6, 4, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 6, 6, 0, 0, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 4, 6, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 2, 12, 0, 0, 4, 0, 2, 0, 0, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 6, 0 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

The cubic modular equation for k is equivalent to theta_4(q) * theta_4(q^3) + theta_2(q)* theta_2(q^3) = theta_3(q) * theta_3(q^3). - Michael Somos, Feb 17 2003

The number of nonnegative solutions is given by A119395. - Max Alekseyev, May 16 2006

Fermat used infinite descent to prove "That there is no number, less by a unit than a multiple of 3, which is composed of a square and the triple of another square". [Yves Hellegouarch, "Invitation to the Mathematics of Fermat-Wiles", Academic Press, 2002, page 4]. - Michael Somos, Sep 03 2016

REFERENCES

J. M. Borwein, P. B. Borwein, Pi and the AGM, Wiley, 1987, p. 110.

J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, "Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups", Springer-Verlag, p 102 eq 9.

N. J. Fine, Basic Hypergeometric Series and Applications, Amer. Math. Soc., 1988; p. 78, Eq. (32.25).

LINKS

Antti Karttunen, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..65537

G. E. Andrews, R. Lewis and Z.-G. Liu, An identity relating a theta series to a sum of Lambert series, Bull. London Math. Soc., 33 (2001), 25-31.

Michael Gilleland, Some Self-Similar Integer Sequences

M. D. Hirschhorn, Three classical results on representations of a number, Séminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire, B42f (1999), 8 pp.

M. D. Hirschhorn, The number of representations of a number by various forms, Discrete Mathematics 298 (2005), 205-211.

H Movasati, Y Nikdelan, Gauss-Manin Connection in Disguise: Dwork Family, arXiv preprint arXiv:1603.09411, 2016.

N. J. A. Sloane et al., Binary Quadratic Forms and OEIS (Index to related sequences, programs, references)

FORMULA

Fine gives an explicit formula for a(n) in terms of the divisors of n.

Coefficients in expansion of Sum_{ i, j = -inf .. inf } q^(i^2+3*j^2).

G.f.: s(2)^5*s(6)^5/(s(1)^2*s(3)^2*s(4)^2*s(12)^2), where s(k) := subs(q=q^k, eta(q)), where eta(q) is Dedekind's function, cf. A010815. [Fine]

Euler transform of period 12 sequence [ 2, -3, 4, -1, 2, -6, 2, -1, 4, -3, 2, -2, ...]. - Michael Somos, Feb 17 2003

G.f. A(x) satisfies 0 = f(A(x), A(x^3), A(x^9)) where f(u1, u3, u9) = (u1*u9) * (u1^2 - 3*u1*u3 + 3*u3^2) * (u3^2 - 3*u3*u9 + 3*u9^2) - u3^6. - Michael Somos, Sep 05 2005

G.f.: theta_3(q) * theta_3(q^3) = (Sum_{k in Z} x^(k^2)) * (Sum_{k in Z} x^(3k^2)). - Michael Somos, Sep 05 2005

Let n=3^d*p1^(2*b1)*...*pm^(2*bm)*q1^c1*...*qk^ck be a prime factorization of n where pi are primes of the form 3t+2 and qj are primes of the form 3t+1. Let B=(c1+1)*...*(ck+1). Then a(n)=0 if either of bi is a half-integer; a(n)=6B if n is a multiple of 4; and a(n)=2B otherwise. - Max Alekseyev, May 16 2006

a(n) = 2 * A096936(n).

a(3*n + 2) = 0. a(3*n) = a(n). a(3*n + 1) = 2 * A129576(n). - Michael Somos, Sep 03 2016

EXAMPLE

G.f. = 1 + 2*q + 2*q^3 + 6*q^4 + 4*q^7 + 2*q^9 + 6*q^12 + 4*q^13 + 6*q^16 + ...

MATHEMATICA

a[n_] := With[{r = Reduce[x^2 + 3*y^2 == n, {x, y}, Integers]}, Which[r === False, 0, Head[r] === And, 1, True, Length[r]]]; Table[a[n], {n, 0, 101}] (* Jean-François Alcover, Jan 10 2014 *)

QP = QPochhammer; s = (QP[q^2] * QP[q^6])^5 / (QP[q] * QP[q^3] * QP[q^4] * QP[q^12])^2 + O[q]^100; CoefficientList[s, q] (* Jean-François Alcover, Nov 09 2015 *)

a[ n_] := Length @ FindInstance[ x^2 + 3 y^2 == n, {x, y}, Integers, 10^9]; (* Michael Somos, Sep 03 2016 *)

a[ n_] := SeriesCoefficient[ EllipticTheta[ 3, 0, q] EllipticTheta[ 3, 0, q^3], {q, 0, n}]; (* Michael Somos, Sep 03 2016 *)

PROG

(PARI) {a(n) = if( n<1, n==0, qfrep([1, 0; 0, 3], n)[n] * 2)}; /* Michael Somos, Jun 05 2005 */

(PARI) {a(n) = my(A); if( n<0, 0, A = x * O(x^n); polcoeff( (eta(x^2 + A) * eta(x^6 + A))^5 / (eta(x + A) * eta(x^3 + A) * eta(x^4 + A) * eta(x^12 + A))^2, n))}; /* Michael Somos, Jun 05 2005 */

(PARI) { a(n) = local(f, B); f=factorint(n); B=1; for(i=1, matsize(f)[1], if(f[i, 1]%3==1, B*=f[i, 2]+1); if(f[i, 1]%3==2, if(f[i, 2]%2, return(0)))); if(n%4, 2*B, 6*B) } \\ Max Alekseyev, May 16 2006

(PARI) first(n) = {my(res = vector(n + 1)); for(i = 0, sqrtint(n \ 3), for(j = 0, sqrtint(n - 3*i^2), res[3*i^2 + j^2 + 1] += (1<<(!!i + !!j)))); res} \\ David A. Corneth, Nov 20 2017

CROSSREFS

Cf. A096936, A119395, A129576.

Sequence in context: A243159 A258144 A113772 * A115978 A033751 A033745

Adjacent sequences:  A033713 A033714 A033715 * A033717 A033718 A033719

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

STATUS

approved

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Last modified November 21 09:14 EST 2019. Contains 329362 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)