login
This site is supported by donations to The OEIS Foundation.

 

Logo


Hints
(Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
A030299 Decimal representation of permutations of lengths 1, 2, 3, ... arranged lexicographically. 31
1, 12, 21, 123, 132, 213, 231, 312, 321, 1234, 1243, 1324, 1342, 1423, 1432, 2134, 2143, 2314, 2341, 2413, 2431, 3124, 3142, 3214, 3241, 3412, 3421, 4123, 4132, 4213, 4231, 4312, 4321, 12345, 12354, 12435, 12453, 12534, 12543, 13245, 13254, 13425 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

This is a list of the permutations in "one-line" notation (cf. Dixon and Mortimer, p. 2). The i-th element of the string is the image of i under the permutation. For example 231 is the permutation that sends 1 to 2, 2 to 3, and 3 to 1. - N. J. A. Sloane, Apr 12 2014

Precise definition of the term "Decimal representation" (required for indices n>409113): Numbers N(s) = Sum_{i=1..m} s(i)*10^(m-i), where s runs over the permutations of (1,...,m), and m=1,2,3,.... This also defines the "lexicographical" order: Obviously 21 comes before 123, etc. The lexicographical order of the permutations, for given m, is the same as the natural order of the numbers N(s). - M. F. Hasler, Jan 28 2013

An alternate variant, using concatenation of the permutations, is very clumsy once the length exceeds 9. For example, after 987654321 (= A030299(409113), where 409113 = A007489(9)) we would get 12345678910, 12345678109, ... In A030298 this problem has been avoided by listing the elements of permutations as separate terms. [Edited by M. F. Hasler, Dec 2012 and Jan 28 2013]

Sequence A051845 is a base-independent version of this sequence: Permutations of 1...m are considered as numbers written in base m+1. - M. F. Hasler, Jan 28 2013

REFERENCES

Dixon, John D.; Mortimer, Brian. Permutation groups. Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 163. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996. xii+346 pp. ISBN: 0-387-94599-7 MR1409812 (98m:20003).

LINKS

A. Karttunen, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..5913

OEIS Wiki, Discussion about alternate definition(s) of this sequence, started by M. F. Hasler, Jan 28 2013

Index entries for sequences related to permutations

MAPLE

seq(seq(add(s[i]*10^(m-i), i=1..m), s=combinat:-permute([$1..m])), m=1..5); # Robert Israel, Oct 14 2015

MATHEMATICA

Flatten @ Table[FromDigits /@ Permutations[Table[i, {i, n}]], {n, 9}] (* For first 409113 terms; Zak Seidov, Oct 03 2015 *)

PROG

(PARI) is_A030299(n)={ (n>1234567890 & print("maybe")) || vecsort(digits(n))==vector(#Str(n), i, i) } \\ /* use digits(n)=eval(Vec(Str(n))) in older versions lacking this function */ \\ M. F. Hasler, Dec 12 2012

(MIT/GNU Scheme from Antti Karttunen, Dec 18 2012):

;; Requires also code from A030298 and A055089:

(define (A030299 n) (vector->base-k (A030298permvec (A084556 n) (A220660 n)) 10))

(define (vector->base-k vec k) (let loop ((i 0) (s 0)) (cond ((= (vector-length vec) i) s) ((>= (vector-ref vec i) k) (error (format #f "Cannot interpret vector ~a in base ~a!" vec k))) (else (loop (+ i 1) (+ (* k s) (vector-ref vec i)))))))

CROSSREFS

A007489(n) gives the position (index) of the term corresponding to last permutation of n elements: (n,n-1,...,1).

The first differences A220664 has interesting fractal structure, see A219664 and A217626.

Cf. also A030298, A055089, A060117, A181073.

See A240763 for preferential arrangements.

Sequence in context: A321771 A225864 A134514 * A268532 A260275 A001292

Adjacent sequences:  A030296 A030297 A030298 * A030300 A030301 A030302

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,base

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Clark Kimberling

EXTENSIONS

Edited by N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 23 2010

STATUS

approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Style Sheet | Transforms | Superseeker | Recent
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

License Agreements, Terms of Use, Privacy Policy. .

Last modified October 18 20:28 EDT 2019. Contains 328197 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)