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A028399 a(n) = 2^n - 4. 27
0, 4, 12, 28, 60, 124, 252, 508, 1020, 2044, 4092, 8188, 16380, 32764, 65532, 131068, 262140, 524284, 1048572, 2097148, 4194300, 8388604, 16777212, 33554428, 67108860, 134217724, 268435452, 536870908, 1073741820, 2147483644 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

2,2

COMMENTS

Number of permutations of [n] with 2 sequences.

Number of 2 X n binary matrices that avoid simultaneously the right angled numbered polyomino patterns (ranpp) (00;1) and (11;0). An occurrence of a ranpp (xy;z) in a matrix A=(a(i,j)) is a triple (a(i1,j1), a(i1,j2), a(i2,j1)) where i1<i2, j1<j2 and these elements are in same relative order as those in the triple (x,y,z). - Sergey Kitaev, Nov 11 2004

The number of edges in the dual Edwards-Venn diagram graph with n-1 digits when n>2.

a(n) (n>=6) is the number of vertices in the molecular graph NS2[n-5], defined pictorially in the Ashrafi et al. reference (Fig. 2, where NS2[2] is shown). - Emeric Deutsch, May 16 2018

From Petros Hadjicostas, Aug 08 2019: (Start)

With regard to the comment above about a(n) being the "number of permutations of [n] with 2 sequences", we refer to Ex. 13 (pp. 260-261) of Comtet (1974), who uses the definition of a "séquence" given by André in several of his papers in the 19th century.

In the terminology of array A059427, these so-called "séquences" in permutations (defined by Comtet and André) are called "alternating runs" (or just "runs"). We discuss these so-called "séquences" below.

If b = (b_1, b_2, ..., b_n) is a permutation of [n], written in one-line notation (not in cycle notation), a "séquence" in a permutation of length l >= 2 (according to Comtet) is a maximal interval of integers {i, i+1, ..., i+l-1} for some i (where 1 <= i <= n-l+1) such that b_i < b_{i+1} < ... < b_{i+l-1} or b_i > b_{i+1} > ... > b_{i+l-1}. (The word "maximal" means that, in the first case, we have b_{i-1} > b_i and b_{i+l} < b_{i+l-1}, while in the second case, we have b_{i-1} < b_i and b_{i+l} > b_{i+l-1} provided b_{i-1} and b_{i+l} can be defined.)

When defining a "séquence", André (1884) actually refers to the list of terms (b_i, b_{i+1}, ..., b_{i+l-1}) rather than the corresponding index set {i, i+1, ..., i+l-1} (which is essentially the same thing).

For more details about these so-called "séquences" (or "alternate runs"), see the comments and examples for sequence A000708.

(End)

REFERENCES

L. Comtet, Advanced Combinatorics, Reidel, 1974, p. 261.

A. W. F. Edwards, Cogwheels of the Mind, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, p. 82.

LINKS

Muniru A Asiru, Table of n, a(n) for n = 2..700

Désiré André, Sur les permutations alternées, J. Math. Pur. Appl., 7 (1881), 167-184.

Désiré André, Étude sur les maxima, minima et séquences des permutations, Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup., 3, no. 1 (1884), 121-135.

Désiré André, Mémoire sur les permutations quasi-alternées, Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées 5e série, tome 1 (1895), 315-350.

Désiré André, Mémoire sur les séquences des permutations circulaires, Bulletin de la S. M. F., tome 23 (1895), pp. 122-184.

Ali Reza Ashrafi and Parisa Nikzad, Kekulé index and bounds of energy for nanostar dendrimers, Digest J. of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 4, No. 2, 2009, 383-388.

S. Kitaev, On multi-avoidance of right angled numbered polyomino patterns, Integers: Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory 4 (2004), A21, 20pp.

S. Kitaev, On multi-avoidance of right angled numbered polyomino patterns, University of Kentucky Research Reports (2004).

László Németh, Pascal pyramid in the space H^2 x R, arXiv:1701.06022 [math.CO], 2017 (3rd line of Table 2 is a(n+1)).

I. Strazdins, Universal affine classification of Boolean functions, Acta Applic. Math. 46 (1997), 147-167.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (3,-2).

FORMULA

O.g.f.: 4x^3/((1-x)(1-2x)). - R. J. Mathar, Aug 07 2008

From Reinhard Zumkeller, Feb 28 2010: (Start)

a(n) = A175164(2*n)/A140504(n+2);

a(2*n) = A052548(n)*A000918(n) for n > 0;

a(n) = A173787(n,2). (End)

a(n) = a(n-1) + 2^(n-1) (with a(2)=0). - Vincenzo Librandi, Nov 22 2010

a(n) = 4*A000225(n-2). - R. J. Mathar, Dec 15 2015

EXAMPLE

From Petros Hadjicostas, Aug 08 2019: (Start)

We have a(3) = 4 because each of the following permutations of [3] has the following so-called "séquences" ("alternate runs"):

123 -> 123 (one),

132 -> 13, 32 (two),

213 -> 21, 13 (two),

231 -> 23, 31 (two),

312 -> 31, 12 (two),

321 -> 321 (one).

Recall that a so-called "séquence" ("alternate run") must start with a "maximum" and end with "minimum", or vice versa, and it should not contain any other maxima and minima in between. Two consecutive such "séquences" ("alternate runs") have exactly one minimum or exactly one maximum in common.

(End)

MAPLE

seq(2^n-4, n=2..40); # Muniru A Asiru, May 17 2018

MATHEMATICA

2^Range[2, 40]-4 (* Harvey P. Dale, Jul 05 2019 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=if(n<2, 0, 2^n-4)

(GAP) a:=List([2..40], n->2^n-4); # Muniru A Asiru, May 17 2018

CROSSREFS

Column k = 2 of A059427.

Sequence in context: A179023 A321690 A269712 * A173033 A317233 A309917

Adjacent sequences:  A028396 A028397 A028398 * A028400 A028401 A028402

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

EXTENSIONS

Additional comments from Barbara Haas Margolius (margolius(AT)math.csuohio.edu), Dec 02 2001

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 22 17:39 EDT 2019. Contains 328319 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)