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A027465 Cube of lower triangular normalized binomial matrix. 28
1, 3, 1, 9, 6, 1, 27, 27, 9, 1, 81, 108, 54, 12, 1, 243, 405, 270, 90, 15, 1, 729, 1458, 1215, 540, 135, 18, 1, 2187, 5103, 5103, 2835, 945, 189, 21, 1, 6561, 17496, 20412, 13608, 5670, 1512, 252, 24, 1, 19683, 59049, 78732, 61236, 30618, 10206, 2268 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Rows of A013610 reversed. - Michael Somos, Feb 14 2002

Row sums are powers of 4 (A000302), antidiagonal sums are A006190 (a(n) = 3*a(n-1) + a(n-2)). - Gerald McGarvey, May 17 2005

Triangle of coefficients in expansion of (3+x)^n.

Also: Pure Galton board of scheme (3,1). Also: Multiplicity (number) of pairs of n-dimensional binary vectors with dot product (overlap) k. There are 2^n = A000079(n) binary vectors of length n and 2^(2n) = 4^n = A000302(n) different pairs to form dot products k = Sum_{i=1..n}v[i]*u[i] between these, 0<=k<=n. (Since dot products are symmetric, there are only 2^n(2^n-1)/2 different non-ordered pairs, actually.) - R. J. Mathar, Mar 17 2006

Mirror image of A013610. - Zerinvary Lajos, Nov 25 2007

T(i,j) is the number of i-permutations of 4 objects a,b,c,d, with repetition allowed, containing j a's. - Zerinvary Lajos, Dec 21 2007

The antidiagonals of the sequence formatted as a square array (see Examples section) and summed with alternating signs gives a bisection of Fibonacci sequence, A001906. Example: 81-(27-1)=55. Similar rule applied to rows gives A000079. - Mark Dols, Sep 01 2009

Triangle T(n,k), read by rows, given by (3,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,...)DELTA (1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,...) where DELTA is the operator defined in A084938. - Philippe Deléham, Oct 09 2011

T(n,k) = binomial(n,k)*3^(n-k), the number of subsets of [2n] with exactly k symmetric pairs, where elements i and j of [2n] form a symmetric pair if i+j=2n+1. Equivalently, if n couples attend a (ticketed) event that offers door prizes, then the number of possible prize distributions that have exactly k couples as dual winners is T(n,k). - Dennis P. Walsh, Feb 02 2012

T(n,k) is the number of ordered pairs (A,B) of subsets of {1,2,...,n} such that the intersection of A and B contains exactly k elements. For example, T(2,1) = 6 because we have ({1},{1}); ({1},{1,2}); ({2},{2}); ({2},{1,2}); ({1,2},{1}); ({1,2},{2}). Sum_{k=0..n} T(n,k)*k = A002697(n) (see comment there by Ross La Haye). - Geoffrey Critzer, Sep 04 2013

LINKS

Reinhard Zumkeller, Rows n = 0..125 of triangle, flattened

B. N. Cyvin et al., Isomer enumeration of unbranched catacondensed polygonal systems with pentagons and heptagons, Match, No. 34 (Oct 1996), pp. 109-121.

Erich Neuwirth, Recursively defined combinatorial functions: Extending Galton's board, Discrete Math. 239 No. 1-3, 33-51 (2001)

FORMULA

Numerators of lower triangle of (b^2)[ i, j ] where b[ i, j ] = binomial(i-1, j-1)/2^(i-1) if j<=i, 0 if j>i.

Triangle whose (i, j)-th entry is binomial(i, j)*3^(i-j).

a(n, m) = 4^(n-1)*Sum_{j=m..n} b(n, j)*b(j, m) = 3^(n-m)*binomial(n-1, m-1), n >= m >= 1; a(n, m) := 0, n<m. G.f. for m-th column: (x/(1-3*x))^m (m-fold convolution of A000244, powers of 3). - Wolfdieter Lang, Feb 2006

G.f.: 1 / (1 - x(3+y)).

a(n,k) = 3*a(n-1,k) + a(n-1,k-1) - R. J. Mathar, Mar 17 2006

From the formalism of A133314, the e.g.f. for the row polynomials of A027465 is exp(x*t)*exp(3x). The e.g.f. for the row polynomials of the inverse matrix is exp(x*t)*exp(-3x). p iterates of the matrix give the matrix with e.g.f. exp(x*t)*exp(p*3x). The results generalize for 3 replaced by any number. - Tom Copeland, Aug 18 2008

T(n,k)=A164942(n,k)*(-1)^k. - Philippe Deléham, Oct 09 2011

Let P and P^T be the Pascal matrix and its transpose and H = P^3 = A027465. Then from the formalism of A132440 and A218272,

  exp[x*z/(1-3z)]/(1-3z) = exp(3z D_z z) e^(x*z)= exp(3D_x x D_x) e^(z*x)

  = (1 z z^2 z^3 ...) H (1 x x^2/2! x^3/3! ...)^T

  = (1 x x^2/2! x^3/3! ...) H^T (1 z z^2 z^3 ...)^T = sum(n=0..oo) (3z)^n L_n(-x/3), where D is the derivative operator and L_n(x) are the regular (not normalized) Laguerre polynomials. - Tom Copeland, Oct 26 2012

E.g.f. for column k: x^k/k! * exp(3x). - Geoffrey Critzer, Sep 04 2013

EXAMPLE

Example: n = 3 offers 2^3 = 8 different binary vectors (0,0,0), (0,0,1), ..., (1,1,0), (1,1,1). a(3,2) = 9 of the 2^4 = 64 pairs have overlap k = 2: (0,1,1)*(0,1,1) = (1,0,1)*(1,0,1) = (1,1,0)*(1,1,0) = (1,1,1)*(1,1,0) = (1,1,1)*(1,0,1) = (1,1,1)*(0,1,1) = (0,1,1)*(1,1,1) = (1,0,1)*(1,1,1) = (1,1,0)*(1,1,1) = 2

For example, T(2,1)=6 since there are 6 subsets of {1,2,3,4} that have exactly 1 symmetric pair, namely, {1,4}, {2,3}, {1,2,3}, {1,2,4}, {1,3,4}, and {2,3,4}.

The present sequence formatted as a triangular array:

     1

     3     1

     9     6     1

    27    27     9     1

    81   108    54    12    1

   243   405   270    90   15    1

   729  1458  1215   540  135   18   1

  2187  5103  5103  2835  945  189  21  1

  6561 17496 20412 13608 5670 1512 252 24 1

  ...

A013610 formatted as a triangular array:

  1

  1  3

  1  6   9

  1  9  27   27

  1 12  54  108   81

  1 15  90  270  405   243

  1 18 135  540 1215  1458   729

  1 21 189  945 2835  5103  5103  2187

  1 24 252 1512 5670 13608 20412 17496 6561

   ...

A099097 formatted as a square array:

      1     0     0    0   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...

      3     1     0    0   0 0 0 0 0 0 ...

      9     6     1    0   0 0 0 0 0 ...

     27    27     9    1   0 0 0 0 ...

     81   108    54   12   1 0 0 ...

    243   405   270   90  15 1 ...

    729  1458  1215  540 135 ...

   2187  5103  5103 2835 ...

   6561 17496 20412 ...

  19683 59049 ...

  59049 ...

MAPLE

for i from 0 to 12 do seq(binomial(i, j)*3^(i-j), j = 0 .. i) od; # Zerinvary Lajos, Nov 25 2007

MATHEMATICA

t[n_, k_] := Binomial[n, k]*3^(n-k); Table[t[n, n-k], {n, 0, 9}, {k, n, 0, -1}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Sep 19 2012 *)

PROG

(PARI) {T(n, k) = polcoeff( (3 + x)^n, k)}; /* Michael Somos, Feb 14 2002 */

(Haskell)

a027465 n k = a027465_tabl !! n !! k

a027465_row n = a027465_tabl !! n

a027465_tabl = iterate (\row ->

   zipWith (+) (map (* 3) (row ++ [0])) (map (* 1) ([0] ++ row))) [1]

-- Reinhard Zumkeller, May 26 2013

CROSSREFS

Cf. A007318, A013610.

Cf. A013610 A099097 A000244, A027471, A027472, A036216, A036217, A036219, A036220, A036221, A036222, A036223.

Sequence in context: A105545 A178831 A164942 * A236420 A187537 A246256

Adjacent sequences:  A027462 A027463 A027464 * A027466 A027467 A027468

KEYWORD

nonn,tabl,easy,nice

AUTHOR

Olivier Gérard, N. J. A. Sloane

STATUS

approved

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Last modified February 24 23:02 EST 2018. Contains 299629 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)