
COMMENTS

Let sigma^m (n) be result of applying sumofdivisors function (A000203) m times to n; call n (m,k)perfect if sigma^m (n) = k*n; then this is the sequence of (2,k)perfect numbers.
From Michel Marcus, May 14 2016: (Start)
For these numbers, the quotient k = sigma(sigma(n))/n is an integer (see A098223). Then also k = (sigma(s)/s)*(sigma(n)/n) with s = sigma(n). That is, k = abundancy(s)*abundancy(n).
So looking at the abundancy of these terms may be interesting. Indeed we see that 459818240 and 51001180160 are actually 3perfect numbers (A005820), and the reason they are here is that they are coprime to 3. So their sums of divisors are 4perfect numbers (A027687), yielding q=12.
In a similar way, we can see that the 5perfect numbers (A046060) that are coprime to 5 will be terms of this sequence with q=30. There are 20 such numbers, the smallest being 13188979363639752997731839211623940096. (End)
From Michel Marcus, May 15 2016: (Start)
It is also interesting to note that for a(2)=8, s=sigma(8)=15 is also a term. This happens to be the case for chains of several terms in a row:
8, 15, 24, 60, 168, 480 with k = 3,4,7,8,9,10;
512, 1023, 1536, 4092, 10752, 32736 with k = 3,4,7,8,9,10;
29127, 47360, 116508, 331520, 932064, 2983680 with k = 4,7,8,9,13,14;
1556480, 3932040, 14008320 with k = 9,13,14;
106151936, 251650560, 955367424 with k = 9,13,14;
312792480, 1505806848 with k = 19,20;
6604416000, 30834059256 with k = 19,20;
9623577600, 46566269568 with k = 19,20.
When n is a term, we can test if s=sigma(n) is also a term; this way we get 6 more terms: 572941926400, 845734196736, 1422976331052, 4010593484800, 11383810648416, 36095341363200.
And the corresponding chains are:
173238912000, 845734196736 with k = 19,20;
355744082763, 572941926400, 1422976331052, 4010593484800, 11383810648416, 36095341363200 with k = 4,7,8,9,13,14. (End)
From Altug Alkan, May 17 2016: (Start)
Here are additional chains for the above list:
57120, 217728 with k = 13,14;
343976, 710400 with k = 7,8;
1980342, 5621760 with k = 10,14;
4404480, 14913024 with k = 11,12;
238608384, 775898880 with k = 11,12. (End)
Currently, the coefficient pairs are [1, 1], [3, 4], [4, 7], [7, 8], [8, 9], [9, 10], [9, 13], [10, 14], [11, 12], [13, 14], [16, 17], [16, 21], [17, 18], [19, 20], [23, 24], [25, 26], [25, 31], [27, 28], [29, 30], [31, 32], [32, 33], [37, 38]. It is interesting to note that for some of them, the pair (s,t) also satisfies t=sigma(s).  Michel Marcus, Jul 03 2016; Sep 06 2016
Using these empirical pairs of coefficients in conjunction with first comment allows us to find if some term is the sum of divisors of another yet unknown smaller term.  Michel Marcus, Jul 04 2016
For m in A090748 = A000043  1 and c in A205597 (= odd a(n)), c*2^m is in the sequence, unless 2^(m+1)1  sigma(c). Indeed, from sigma(xy) = sigma(x)*sigma(y) for gcd(x,y) = 1, we get sigma(sigma(c*2^m)) = sigma(sigma(c))*2^(m+1), so c*2^m is in the sequence if sigma(sigma(c))/c = k/2 (where k can't be odd: A330598 has no odd c).  M. F. Hasler, Jan 06 2020
