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A015518 a(n) = 2*a(n-1) + 3*a(n-2), with a(0)=0, a(1)=1. 85
0, 1, 2, 7, 20, 61, 182, 547, 1640, 4921, 14762, 44287, 132860, 398581, 1195742, 3587227, 10761680, 32285041, 96855122, 290565367, 871696100, 2615088301, 7845264902, 23535794707, 70607384120, 211822152361, 635466457082 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

Number of walks of length n between any two distinct vertices of the complete graph K_4. - Paul Barry and Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004

For n>=1, a(n) is the number of integers k, 1<=k<=3^(n-1), such that their ternary representation ends in even number of zeros (see A007417). - Philippe Deléham, Mar 31 2004

Form the digraph with matrix A=[0,1,1,1;1,0,1,1;1,1,0,1;1,0,1,1]. A015518(n) corresponds to the (1,3) term of A^n. - Paul Barry, Oct 02 2004

The same sequence may be obtained by the following process. Starting a priori with the fraction 1/1, the denominators of fractions built according to the rule: add top and bottom to get the new bottom, add top and 4 times the bottom to get the new top. The limit of the sequence of fractions is 2. - Cino Hilliard, Sep 25 2005

(A046717(n))^2 + (2*a(n))^2 = A046717(2n). E.g., A046717(3) = 13, 2*a(3) = 14, A046717(6) = 365. 13^2 + 14^2 = 365. - Gary W. Adamson, Jun 17 2006

For n>=2, number of ordered partitions of n-1 into parts of sizes 1 and 2 where there are two types of 1 (singletons) and three types of 2 (twins). For example, the number of possible configurations of families of n-1 male (M) and female (F) offspring considering only single births and twins, where the birth order of M/F/pair-of-twins is considered and there are three types of twins; namely, both F, both M, or one F and one M - where birth order within a pair of twins itself is disregarded. In particular, for a(3)=7, two children could be either: (1) F, then M; (2) M, then F; (3) F,F; (4) M,M; (5) F,F twins; (6) M,M twins; or (7) M,F twins (emphasizing that birth order is irrelevant here when both/all children are the same gender and when two children are within the same pair of twins). - Rick L. Shepherd, Sep 18 2004

a(n) is prime for n = {2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 23, ...}, where only a(2) = 2 corresponds to a prime of the form (3^n - 1)/4. All prime a(n), except a(2) = 2, are the primes of the form (3^n + 1)/4. Numbers n such that (3^n + 1)/4 is prime are listed in A007658(n) = {3, 5, 7, 13, 23, 43, 281, 359, 487, 577, 1579, 1663, 1741, 3191, 9209, 11257, 12743, 13093, 17027, 26633, ...}. Note that all prime a(n) have prime indices. Prime a(n) are listed in A111010(n) = {2, 7, 61, 547, 398581, 23535794707, 82064241848634269407, ...}. - Alexander Adamchuk, Nov 19 2006

General form: k=3^n-k. Also: A001045, A078008, A097073, A115341. - Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Dec 11 2008

abs(A014983). - Zerinvary Lajos, May 28 2009

Let A be the Hessenberg matrix of order n, defined by: A[1,j]=1, A[i,i]:=-2, A[i,i-1]=-1, and A[i,j]=0 otherwise. Then, for n>=1, a(n)=charpoly(A,1). - Milan Janjic, Jan 26 2010

Select an odd size subset S from {1,2,...,n}, then select an even size subset from S. - Geoffrey Critzer, Mar 02 2010

a(n) = the number of ternary sequences of length n where the numbers of (0's, 1's) are (even, odd) respectively, and, by symmetry, the number of such sequences where those numbers are (odd, even) respectively. A122983 covers (even, even), and A081251 covers (odd, odd). - Toby Gottfried, Apr 18 2010

An elephant sequence, see A175654. For the corner squares just one A[5] vector, with decimal value 341, leads to this sequence (without the leading 0). For the central square this vector leads to the companion sequence A046717 (without the first leading 1). - Johannes W. Meijer, Aug 15 2010

Let R be the commutative algebra resulting from adjoining the elements of the Klein four-group to the integers (equivalently, K = Z[x,y,z]/{x*y - z, y*z - x, x*z - y, x^2 - 1, y^2 - 1, z^2 - 1}). Then a(n) is equal to the coefficients of x, y, and z in the expansion of (x + y + z)^n. - Joseph E. Cooper III (easonrevant(AT)gmail.com), Nov 06 2010

Pisano period lengths:  1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 6, 8, 2, 4, 10, 4, 6, 6, 4, 16, 16, 2, 18, 4,... - R. J. Mathar, Aug 10 2012

The ratio a(n+1)/a(n) converges to 3 as n approaches infinity. - Felix P. Muga II, Mar 09 2014

This is a divisibility sequence, also the values of Chebyshev polynomials, and also the number of ways of packing a 2 X n-1 rectangle with dominoes and unit squares. - R. K. Guy, Dec 16 2016

REFERENCES

John Derbyshire, Prime Obsession, Joseph Henry Press, April 2004, see p. 16.

F. P. Muga II, Extending the Golden Ratio and the Binet-de Moivré Formula, March 2014; Preprint on ResearchGate.

LINKS

Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000

K Böhmová, C Dalfó, C Huemer, On cyclic Kautz digraphs. Preprint 2016.

G. Bowlin and M. G. Brin, Coloring Planar Graphs via Colored Paths in the Associahedra, arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.3984, 2013. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 12 2013

Dale Gerdemann, Fractal generated from (2,3) recursion, YouTube Video, Dec 05 2014.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (2,3)

Index entries for sequences related to Chebyshev polynomials.

FORMULA

G.f.: x/(1-2*x-3*x^2).

a(n) = (3^n-(-1)^n)/4 = floor(3^n/4 + 1/2).

a(n) = 3^(n-1) - a(n-1). - Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004

E.g.f.: (exp(3*x)-exp(-x))/4. Second inverse binomial transform of (5^n-1)/4, A003463. Inverse binomial transform for powers of 4, A000302 (when preceded by 0). - Paul Barry, Mar 28 2003

a(n) = sum{k=0..floor(n/2), C(n, 2k+1)*2^(2k) }. - Paul Barry, May 14 2003

a(n) = sum{k=1..n, binomial(n, k)(-1)^(n+k)*4^(k-1) }. - Paul Barry, Apr 02 2003

a(n+1) = sum{k=0..floor(n/2), binomial(n-k, k)2^(n-2k)3^k}. - Paul Barry, Jul 13 2004

a(n) = U(n-1, i/sqrt(3))(-i*sqrt(3))^(n-1), i^2=-1. - Paul Barry, Nov 17 2003

G.f.: x*(1+x)^2/(1-6*x^2-8*x^3-3*x^4) = x(1+x)^2/characteristic polynomial(x^4*adj(K_4)(1/x)). - Paul Barry, Feb 03 2004

a(n) = sum_{k=0..3^(n-1)} A014578(k) = -(-1)^n*A014983(n) = A051068(3^(n-1)), for n>0. - Philippe Deléham, Mar 31 2004

E.g.f. : exp(x)*sinh(2*x)/2. - Paul Barry, Oct 02 2004

a(2n+1) = A054880(n)+1. - M. F. Hasler, Mar 20 2008

2a(n) + (-1)^n = A046717(n). - M. F. Hasler, Mar 20 2008

((1+sqrt(4))^n-(1-sqrt(4))^n)/4 = (3^n-(-1)^n)/4. Offset =1. a(3)=7. - Al Hakanson (hawkuu(AT)gmail.com), Dec 31 2008

a(n) = Sum_{k=1,3,5,...}Binomial(n,k)*2^(k-1). - Geoffrey Critzer, Mar 02 2010

Starting with "1" = triangle A059260 * the powers of 2: [1, 2, 4, 8,...] as a vector. - Gary W. Adamson, Mar 06 2012

From Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Jul 19 2012: (Start)

G.f. G(0)/4 where G(k)= 1 - 1/(9^k - 3*x*81^k/(3*x*9^k - 1/(1 + 1/(3*9^k - 27*x*81^k/(9*x*9^k + 1/G(k+1)))))); (continued fraction, 3rd kind, 6-step).

E.g.f. G(0)/4 where G(k)= 1 - 1/(9^k - 3*x*81^k/(3*x*9^k - (2*k+1)/(1 + 1/(3*9^k - 27*x*81^k/(9*x*9^k + (2*k+2)/G(k+1)))))); (continued fraction, 3rd kind, 6-step).  (End)

G.f.: G(0)*x/(2*(1-x)), where G(k)= 1 + 1/(1 - x*(4*k-1)/(x*(4*k+3) - 1/G(k+1))); (continued fraction). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, May 26 2013

a(n+1) = Sum_{k = 0..n} A238801(n,k)*2^k. - Philippe Deléham, Mar 07 2014

a(n)=(-1)^(n-1)*sum(k=0,..,n-1, A135278(n-1,k)*(-4)^k) = [3^n-(-1)^n]/4 = (-1)^(n-1)*sum(k=0,..,n-1, (-3)^k). Equals (-1)^(n-1)*Phi(n,-3), where Phi is the cyclotomic polynomial when n is an odd prime. (For n>0.) - Tom Copeland, Apr 14 2014

MATHEMATICA

Table[(3^n-(-1)^n)/4, {n, 0, 30}] (* Alexander Adamchuk, Nov 19 2006 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=round(3^n/4)

(Sage) [round(3^n/4) for n in xrange(0, 27)]

(MAGMA) [Round(3^n/4): n in [0..30]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Jun 24 2011

CROSSREFS

a(n) = A080926(n-1) + 1 = (1/3)*A054878(n+1) = (1/3)*abs(A084567(n+1)).

First differences of A033113 and A039300. Partial sums of A046717.

The following sequences (and others) belong to the same family: A001333, A000129, A026150, A002605, A046717, A015518, A084057, A063727, A002533, A002532, A083098, A083099, A083100, A015519.

Cf. A046717.

Cf. A007658, A111010.

Cf. A001045, A078008, A097073, A115341. - Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Dec 11 2008

Cf. A059260.

Sequence in context: A116950 A111017 A116408 * A014983 A083379 A216246

Adjacent sequences:  A015515 A015516 A015517 * A015519 A015520 A015521

KEYWORD

nonn,walk,easy

AUTHOR

Olivier Gérard

EXTENSIONS

More terms from Emeric Deutsch, Apr 01 2004

Edited by Ralf Stephan, Aug 30 2004

STATUS

approved

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Last modified April 26 15:40 EDT 2017. Contains 285446 sequences.