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A005322 Column of Motzkin triangle.
(Formerly M2799)
8
1, 3, 9, 25, 69, 189, 518, 1422, 3915, 10813, 29964, 83304, 232323, 649845, 1822824, 5126520, 14453451, 40843521, 115668105, 328233969, 933206967, 2657946907, 7583013474, 21668135850, 62007732605, 177696228411, 509899901553, 1464990733969, 4214045993925 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

2,2

COMMENTS

Number of returns (i.e. down steps hitting the x-axis) in all Motzkin paths of length n. E.g. a(4)=9 because in the nine Motzkin paths of length 4, HHHH, HHU(D), HU(D)H, HUH(D), U(D)HH, U(D)U(D), UH(D)H, UHH(D) and UUD(D), where H=(1,0), U=(1,1), D=(1,-1), we have altogether nine down steps D hitting the x-axis (shown in parentheses). - Emeric Deutsch, Dec 26 2003

Number of nonnegative H,U,D paths of length n that end at height 2. Bijection to the Deutsch manifestation above: turn the last U carrying the path up to height 2 into a D. This gives a Motzkin n-path with a marked return D. - David Callan, Jun 07 2006

Number of Motzkin paths of length n+2, starting with a (1,1) step, ending with a (1,-1) step and touching the x-axis at least three times. Example: a(3)=3 because we have UDHUD, UDUHD and UHDUD, where H=(1,0), U=(1,1), D=(1,-1). - Emeric Deutsch, Jul 27 2006

REFERENCES

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

G. C. Greubel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 2..1000

N. Benyahia Tani, Z. Yahi, S. Bouroubi, Ordered and non-ordered non-isometric convex quadrilaterals inscribed in a regular n-gon, Bulletin du Laboratoire Liforce, 01 (2014) 1 - 9.

R. De Castro, A. L. Ramírez and J. L. Ramírez, Applications in Enumerative Combinatorics of Infinite Weighted Automata and Graphs, arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.2449 [cs.DM], 2013.

R. Donaghey and L. W. Shapiro, Motzkin numbers, J. Combin. Theory, Series A, 23 (1977), 291-301.

Nickolas Hein, Jia Huang, Nonassociativity measurements of some binary operations, arXiv:1807.04623 [math.CO], 2018.

Simon Plouffe, Approximations de séries génératrices et quelques conjectures, Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1992.

Simon Plouffe, Une méthode pour obtenir la fonction génératrice d'une série. FPSAC 1993, Florence. Formal Power Series and Algebraic Combinatorics.

FORMULA

a(n) = number of (s(0), s(1), ..., s(n)) such that s(i) is a nonnegative integer and |s(i) - s(i-1)| <= 1 for i = 1, 2, ..., n, s(0) = 0, s(n) = 2.

G.f.: 2(1-z-q)/(1-z+q)^2, where q=sqrt(1-2z-3z^2). - Emeric Deutsch, Dec 26 2003

G.f.: z^2*M^3, where M=1+zM+z^2*M^2 is the g.f. of the Motzkin numbers (A001006). - Emeric Deutsch, Jul 27 2006

a(n) = -sqrt(-3)*(-1)^n*(3*n*(13*n+27)*hypergeom([1/2, n],[1],4/3) -hypergeom([1/2, n+1],[1],4/3)*(41*n^2+115*n+60))/(2*(n+3)*(n+5)*(n+6)). [From Mark van Hoeij, Nov 12 2009]

a(n) = sum(k=1..n+2, (k-2)*k*sum(j=k..n+2, C(-k+2*j-1,j-1)*(-1)^(n+2-j) * C(n+2,j)))/(n+2). [From Vladimir Kruchinin, Sep, 26 2011]

a(n) (5 + n) = (13 + 4 n) a(n - 1) - n a(n - 2) - 6 n a(n - 3). [Simon Plouffe. Feb 09 2012]

MAPLE

M:=(1-z-sqrt(1-2*z-3*z^2))/2/z^2: ser:=series(z^2*M^3, z=0, 35): seq(coeff(ser, z, n), n=2..28); # Emeric Deutsch, Jul 27 2006

MATHEMATICA

CoefficientList[Series[2*(1 - x - Sqrt[1 - 2*x - 3*x^2])/(1 - x + Sqrt[1 - 2*x - 3*x^2])^2, {x, 0, 50}], x] (* G. C. Greubel, Mar 03 2017 *)

PROG

(Maxima) a(n):=sum((k-2)*k*sum(binomial(-k+2*j-1, j-1)*(-1)^(n+2-j)*binomial(n+2, j), j, k, n+2), k, 1, n+2)/(n+2) /* Vladimir Kruchinin, Sep, 26 2011 */

(PARI) x='x+O('x^50); Vec(2*(1 - x - sqrt(1 - 2*x - 3*x^2))/(1 - x + sqrt(1 - 2*x - 3*x^2))^2) \\ G. C. Greubel, Mar 03 2017

CROSSREFS

Cf. A026300, A001006.

A diagonal of triangle A020474.

Sequence in context: A201533 A000242 A077846 * A103780 A211288 A206727

Adjacent sequences:  A005319 A005320 A005321 * A005323 A005324 A005325

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 15 21:06 EDT 2018. Contains 316237 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)